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Livet efter en njurtransplantation: ur mottagarens perspektiv
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
2019 (Swedish)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [sv]

Sammanfattning 

Bakgrund: Njurtransplantation är en av de främsta behandlingarna vid njursvikt, som resulterar i både positiva och negativa effekter för patienten.   

Syftet: Syftet med denna uppsats var att ta reda hur mottagaren upplever sin hälsorelaterade livskvalitet (HRQoL), fysiskt, psykiskt och socialt, efter en njurtransplantation.

Metod: En litteraturöversikt där tio artiklar av kvantitativ karaktär valdes ut för att sedan granskas och analyseras.Databaserna som användes var PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Cochrane och PsycInfo.Katie Erikssons omvårdnadsteori användes som teoretisk referensram.

Resultat: Studiens resultat delades upp i psykisk livskvalitet, fysisk livskvalitet och social livskvalitet. Flertalet patienter rapporterade om försämrad fysisk livskvalitet relaterat till de bieffekter som de immunsuppressiva läkemedlen medför. Studien indikerar dock på att patientens HRQoL påverkas av dess förväntningar innan transplantationen, då de som hade lägre förväntningar uppgav en högre skattad livskvalitet efter transplantationen. Patienter uppgav att de kände sig friare i jämförelse med dialyspatienter, främst då de inte är bundna till dialysbehandling. Den psykiska livskvaliteten upplevdes som förbättrad i jämförelse än innan operationen, då patienterna rapporterade den psykiska stressen som mindre. Många upplevde känsla av oro över både de efterföljande sjukdomarna som en njurtransplantation kan medföra, men även över transplantavstötning. De patienter som hade högre inkomst rapporterade högre social livskvalitet jämfört med de som hade det sämre ställt, efter en njurtransplantation. 

Slutsats: Patienterna rapporterade ett varierande resultat av hur de upplever sin HRQoL efter njurtransplantation. Den fysiska livskvaliteten var den som var mest försämrad, i och med de biverkningar som läkemedlen medför. Generellt upplevde dock flertalet av patienterna en förbättrad HRQoL i jämförelse med innan transplantationen. För att minska patientens lidande har sjuksköterskan en mycket viktig roll. 

Abstract [en]

Abstract 

Background: Kidney transplantation is one of the primary treatments for renal disease, which results in both positive and negative effects for the patient. 

Aim: The aim of this review was to find out how the recipient of the kidney experiences his or her health-related quality of life (HRQoL), physically, mentally and socially, after a kidney transplantation.

Method: A systematic review where ten quantitative studies were elected to be reviewed and analyzed. The data bases that has been used is PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Cochrane and PsycInfo. The nursing theory of Katie Eriksson was used as a theoretical reference.

Results: The result of the study was divided in physical, mental and social quality of life (QoL). Multiple patients reported that they experienced worse physical HRQoL related to the side effects of the immunosuppressant medication. Although, the study indicates that the patients HRQoL is affected by the high expectations before the transplantation, where the patients with lower expectations reported a higher score of experienced HRQoL after the kidney transplantation. Patients also stated that they felt more free in comparison with patients undergoing dialysis since they are not bound to go to any dialysis treatments. The experienced mental QoL after the operation was better than before because of less mental stress. The diseases that a kidney transplantation can lead to, along with the worry of transplant rejection was stated as a concern among a lot of the patients. The patients with a higher income reported a better experienced social QoL, after kidney transplantation, compared to the patients with lower socioeconomic status. 

Conclusion: The patients reported varying results about the experienced HRQoL after a kidney transplantation. The psysical QoL was stated as the most impaired, mainly because of the side effects of the immunosuppressants. However, the majority of the patients generally experienced an improved HRQoL in comparison with their life before the transplantation. It is a big part of the nursing role to decrease the suffering of the patient.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. , p. 31
Keywords [en]
Kidney Transplantation, Health Related Quality of Life
Keywords [sv]
Njurtransplantation, Hälsorelaterad Livskvalitet
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-385885OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-385885DiVA, id: diva2:1326246
Subject / course
Caring Sciences
Educational program
Registered Nurse Programme
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2019-06-18 Created: 2019-06-17 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved

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