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Enhancement of Phenol Formaldehyde Adhesive with Crystalline Nano Cellulose
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Forestry and Wood Technology.
2019 (English)Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Abstract

The wood industries to this day use almost exclusively petroleum derived adhesives that are based mainly on the reaction of formaldehyde with urea, melamine or phenol. These adhesives have low cost and good adjustable properties which makes it hard for bio-based alternatives to compete. Phenol formaldehyde (PF), as an example of a synthetic adhesive, has been in use for over 100 years. In some parts of the world, legislation around formaldehyde is changing, and there is an increasingly voluntary awareness about the toxicity and unsustainability of formaldehyde. Industries realize that raw materials from oil is unstainable. The latter is currently a driving factor behind research on alternatives to amino based adhesives. Also, consumer interest in healthy and sustainable products, such as emitting less formaldehyde indoors, increases the need for bio based adhesives.

Cellulose contained in plant cell walls is a renewable, abundant and nontoxic resource. During the last decades, many innovations have been achieved around cellulose and this trend does not seem to be slowing down. Cellulose shows excellent mechanical properties, high strength, high elastic modulus as well as having a low density.

Research about cellulose reinforced adhesives has been increased the last years. This thesis studied the enhancement of phenol formaldehyde adhesive with Crystalline Nano Cellulose (CNC) at 5wt% and 10wt% loading levels for producing plywood boards. Indecisive results when using CNC higher than 3wt%, especially with PF resin, have been reported by other authors.

In this thesis, European standards were applied. EN 314 was applied to test the panels shear strength. Three (3) treatment classes were selected, indoor room condition as well as pre-treatments 5.1.1 and 5.1.3. Other properties measured were modulus of elasticity, thickness swelling, formaldehyde emissions.

Results showed a shear strength increase for all pre-treatment classes. 10wt% CNC mixture with phenol formaldehyde in water bath, pre-treatment (5.1.1) for 24h showed the highest increase in shear strength (+73,9%). The 10 wt% CNC mixture panels also showed the highest wood fibre failure of all panel types produced. A decrease in MOE has been observed with 10 wt% CNC compared to the 5 wt% CNC panels. Formaldehyde emissions tests were inconclusive, but since less PF was used, there was a general reduction in emissions. The 5 wt% CNC panels were superior in terms of modulus of elasticity and swelling and also showed improved shear strength. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. , p. 28
Keywords [en]
Nano Cellulose, Fibrillated cellulose, Wood Adhesive, Shear strength, Adhesive Enhancement, Formaldehyde adhesive, Phenol Formaldehyde
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology Nano Technology Composite Science and Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-85468OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-85468DiVA, id: diva2:1325991
Educational program
Forest and Wood Engineering Programme, 180 credits
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2019-06-17 Created: 2019-06-17 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved

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