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Simulations of Safety Aspects for Occpuants in Mine Blast Events
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
2019 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Underbody mine blasts are events during which massive amounts of energy is transferred to a vehicle and its occupants during a very short time. The occupants are usually protected by both external (armor) and internal (seat suspension/belts etc.) features. Here, we aim at improving the safety of vehicles that experience a real threat of mine blasts. Through simulations using the finite element method, modified seat belts, airbags, and vertical seat damping mechanisms were tested. The designs were evaluated through injury criteria established for a virtual test dummy and distance measurements between the occupant and the hull in the simulation model. Modifications to the seat belt geometry that enable faster and stronger response yielded a greater clearance between the occupant’s head and the ceiling of the vehicle. This came at a cost of higher injury values, mainly in the neck. For a test case where the occupant’s head would hit the ceiling, airbags were shown to be able to prevent the impact and decrease injury values that were previously above the acceptance limit. The effect of a proposed damped seat construction was tested with regards to the stiffness and damping constants of the damping mechanism. It was shown that a damped mechanism can decrease the value of the injury criteria related to the acceleration of the spine by over 50 %.

Abstract [sv]

Vid minsprängningar under fordon överförs stora mängder energi till fordonet under väldigt kort tid. Passagerare skyddas av både yttre (pansar) och inre (stolsupphängning, bälten m.m.) åtgärder. Här försöker vi öka säkerheten i fordon för vilka minor är ett reellt hot. Genom simuleringar som använder finita elementmetoden testades och utvärderades modifierade stolsbälten, luftkuddar, och dämpningsmekanismer genom skadekriterier för en virtuell testdocka och avståndsmätningar mellan passageraren och fordonet i simuleringsmodellen. Modifikationer av bältesgeometrin som ger en snabbare respons i bältet resulterade i ökad fri höjd mellan passagerarens huvud och fordonets innertak. Med detta följde dock högre skadevärden, främst i nacken. För ett testfall där passagerarens huvud slog i taket kunde luftkuddar förhindra kollisionen och minska skadevärden som tidigare låg över gränsen. Beteendet av en föreslagen dämpad säteskonstruktion testades med avseende på fjäder- och dämpningskonstanten av den dämpande mekanismen. En dämpad konstruktion visades kunna minska värdet på ett skadekriterium för ryggradens acceleration med över 50 %.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. , p. 41
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-160207OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-160207DiVA, id: diva2:1325122
External cooperation
BAE Systems Hägglunds AB
Subject / course
Examensarbete i teknisk fysik
Educational program
Master of Science Programme in Engineering Physics
Presentation
2019-06-10, Universitetsklubben, Umeå Universitet, Umeå, 09:00 (Swedish)
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2019-06-17 Created: 2019-06-14 Last updated: 2019-06-17Bibliographically approved

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