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Industrial Demand Response in the Primary Reserve Markets: A case study on Holmen’s Pulp and Paper Mill
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
2019 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

This thesis stems from the interest of Holmen group to investigate the opportunitiesavailable for large electricity consumers in the Swedish primary reserve markets.The study performed focuses on one of Holmen's paper mill and it aims at identifyinga load inside the production process that is suitable for providing frequency containmentservices for the grid. The evaluation of the mill's consumption prole and the technicalrequirements of the reserve market led to the identication of the electric boiler coupledwith a steam accumulator as the most appropriate load.Five case study simulating the participation of the mill to dierent energy and reservemarkets have been evaluated. For each case a linear optimization problem has beenformulated. The rst simulation represents the current practice of the mill in relation tothe energy purchased on the spot market (following it will be also referred as referencecase). The second case study (II c.s.) integrates the use of the steam accumulator asa tool to perform thermal load shifting. In the third case study (III c.s.) the mill ismodelled to bid on the spot and primary reserve market by oering some capacity ofthe electric boiler. The last two case studies (IV and V c.s.) recalls the rst and lastpreviously mentioned, but also include the possibility of having energy imbalance. Thismeans that the imbalance settlement operated by eSett will produce an additional costor prot for the mill.The last three problem formulations fall under the denition of stochastic problems,since two random variable are present, namely: average hourly frequency value andimbalance settlement price. The uncertainty of the variables is represented throughscenarios.The outcome derived from the combination of the results for the winter and summercases shows that each strategy brings an economic saving when compared to the referencecase (I c.s.). The less interesting strategies are the ones that do not involve the reservemarket, leading to about 0.03% (II c.s.) and 0.06% (IV c.s.) of saving on the overallyearly energy cost. Contrariwise, by oering FCR-N capacity, the cost of electricitycan be cut by 5.15% (III c.s.) and 6.69% (V c.s.), respectively considering and notconsidering the imbalance settlement.

Abstract [sv]

Avhandlingen har sitt ursprung i skogsindustrikoncernen Holmens intresse att undersökamöjligheten för stora elförbrukare att delta på den svenska primär-reservmarknaden. Studien som utförts fokuserar på ett av Holmens pappersbruk och syftar till att identifiera en elektrisk process som, inom bruksgränserna, är lämplig för att tillhandahålla frekvensregleringstjänster till det nationella nätet. En utvärdering av brukets elförbrukning samt de tekniska krav som ställs på reservmarknaden ledde till att en elektrisk panna med tillkopplad ångackumulator identifierades som mest lämplig.Fem budstrategier som simulerar brukets deltagande till olika energioch reservmarknader har presenterats. För varje strategi är ett linjärt optimeringsproblem formulerat. Den första strategin visar på nuvarande sätt bruket köper elektricitet på spotmarknaden. Den andra strategin integrerar användning av ångackumulatorn som ett verktyg för att utföra termisk lastskiftning. I den tredje modelleras deltagande också på primärreservmarknaden genom att erbjuda en viss kapacitet hos elpannan. De två sista strategierna baseras på den första och tredje, men tillåter i tillägg obalanser vilket innebär en extra kostnad eller möjlig intjäning för bruket.De tre sista problemformuleringarna faller under definitionen stokastiska problem, eftersom två slumpmässiga variabler är närvarande, nämligen: genomsnittligt timfrekvensvärde och priset för obalans. Osäkerheten för variablerna representeras genom scenarier.Resultatet visar att varje strategi ger en ekonomisk besparing jämfört med refer-ensfallet (strategi ett). De mindre intressanta strategierna är de som inte involverarreservmarknaden, vilka endast leder till ca 0,03% och 0,06% minskning av den totalaårliga energikostnaden. Däremot, genom att erbjuda FCR-N-kapacitet kan kostnaden för el minskas med 6,69% och 5,15% beroende s eller ej.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. , p. 59
Series
TRITA-EECS-EX ; 2018:692
Keywords [en]
industrial demand response, pulp and paper industry, primary frequency control, stochastic optimization
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-253260OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-253260DiVA, id: diva2:1324272
External cooperation
Expektra
Educational program
Master of Science - Environomical Pathways for Sustainable Energy Systems
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2019-06-13 Created: 2019-06-13 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved

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