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Hur kan blockkedjeteknik hantera transaktionskostnader i avtalsprocesser exponerade mot opportunism, jämfört med traditionella avtalslösningar?: En fallstudie om korruption i biståndsprocesser
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
2019 (Swedish)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
How can the blockchain technology handle transaction costs in contractual processes exposed to opportunistic behavior, in comparison to traditional contractual solutions? : A case study about corruption in aid processes (English)
Abstract [sv]

Syfte: Studiens syfte är att analysera huruvida korruption i biståndsprocesser bättre kan hanteras via de blockkedjebaserade lösningarna kryptovalutor, smarta kontrakt och tokens, jämfört med traditionellt biståndsgivande. Vidare ämnar studien applicera resultaten från fallstudien på generella avtalsprocesser exponerade mot opportunism, för att analysera huruvida de blockkedjebaserade lösningarna bättre kan hantera transaktionskostnader jämfört med traditionella avtalslösningar.

Bakgrund: Informationsasymmetrier, begränsad rationalitet och strategiskt beteende resulterar i tillitsproblematik vid avtalsprocesser, vilket ökar transaktionskostnaderna (Williamson, 1974). Biståndsprocesser är extra exponerade mot opportunistiskt beteende i form av korruption, vilket leder till att en stor del av biståndet försvinner på vägen (Transparency International, 2017). Blockkedjebaserad teknik ger möjligheten att ingå avtal utan tillit till motparten, men  lösningen är inte optimal för alla typer av avtal. Det motiverar en analys om huruvida tekniken kan hantera transaktionskostnader i biståndsprocesser bättre än traditionellt biståndsgivande.

Genomförande: Studiens primärdata inhämtades via semi-strukturerade intervjuer med två svenska biståndsorganisationer och två experter inom blockkedjetekniken. Utöver intervjuerna genomfördes även en litteraturstudie och den insamlade empirin analyserades utifrån ett transaktionskostnadsperspektiv.

Slutsats: Blockkedjebaserade lösningar kan hantera transaktionskostnader bättre än traditionellt biståndsgivande när Greenspans (2015) fem kriterium är uppfyllda. Kontexten, avtalets karaktär och avtalsparternas preferenser är de avgörande faktorerna huruvida kriterierna uppfylls i såväl biståndsgivande som generella avtalsprocesser. En ökad transparens, öppenhet och censurresistens måste värderas högre vid implementering än de medföljande säkerhetsriskerna.

Abstract [en]

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to analyze whether corruption in aid processes better can be managed through the blockchain-based solutions cryptocurrencies, smart contracts and tokens, in comparison to traditional donation of aid. The study also aims to apply the results from the case study to general contractual processes exposed to opportunistic behavior, to analyze whether the blockchain-based solutions better can manage the transaction costs in comparison to traditional contractual solutions.

Background: Asymmetric information, bounded rationality and strategic behavior result in trust issues in contractual processes, which increases transaction costs (Williamson, 1974). Aid processes are particularly exposed to opportunistic behavior in form of corruption, which leads to aid disappearing on the way (Transparency International, 2017). Blockchain-based technology enables contractual relationships without trusting the counterpart, but is not an optimal solution for all types of contracts. This provides incentives for a further analysis whether the technology can manage transaction costs in aid processes better than traditional donation of aid.

Completion: The study´s primary data was obtained through semi-structed interviews with two Swedish aid organizations and two experts in blockchain technology. A literature review was made and the empirical data was analyzed from a transaction cost perspective.

Conclusion: Blockchain-based solutions can manage transaction costs better than the traditional donation of aid when Greenspan´s (2015) five criteria is met. The context, the characteristics of the contract and the preferences of the contracting parties are the decisive factors whether the criteria are met in the aid donation process and in general contractual processes. Increased transparency, openness and censor resistance must be valued higher when implementing the technology than the following security risks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. , p. 97
Keywords [en]
Contractual processes, opportunistic behavior, aid, corruption, transaction costs, blockchain-based solutions, cryptocurrencies, smart contracts, tokens
Keywords [sv]
Avtalsprocesser, opportunistiskt beteende, bistånd, korruption, transaktionskostnader, blockkedjebaserade lösningar, kryptovalutor, smarta kontrakt, tokens
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-157381ISRN: LIU-IEI-FIL-A--19/03142--SEOAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-157381DiVA, id: diva2:1322684
Subject / course
Master Thesis in Business and Economics Programme (Economics)
Presentation
2019-06-07, 317:868, Linköping University, SE-581 83, Linköping, 08:15 (Swedish)
Supervisors
Note

Bilagor är inkluderade

Available from: 2019-07-03 Created: 2019-06-11 Last updated: 2019-07-03

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