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Wire-arc additive manufacturing of a duplex stainless steel: thermal cycle analysis and microstructure characterization
University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology. (PTW)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6242-3517
University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology. (PTW)
University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology. (PTW)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0234-3168
University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Welding Technology. (PTW)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3374-6282
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2019 (English)In: Welding in the World, ISSN 0043-2288, E-ISSN 1878-6669, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 975-987Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The evolution of microstructures with thermal cycles was studied for wire-arc additive manufacturing of duplex stainless steel blocks. To produce samples, arc energy of 0.5kJ/mm and interlayer temperature of 150 degrees C were used as low heat input-low interlayer temperature (LHLT) and arc energy of 0.8kJ/mm and interlayer temperature of 250 degrees C as high heat input-high interlayer temperature (HHHT). Thermal cycles were recorded with different thermocouples attached to the substrate as well as the built layers. The microstructure was analyzed using optical and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that a similar geometry was produced with 14 layers4 beads in each layerfor LHLT and 15 layers3 beads in each layerfor HHHT. Although the number of reheating cycles was higher for LHLT, each layer was reheated for a shorter time at temperatures above 600 degrees C, compared with HHHT. A higher austenite fraction (+8%) was achieved for as-deposited LHLT beads, which experienced faster cooling between 1200 and 800 degrees C. The austenite fraction of the bulk of additively manufactured samples, reheated several times, was quite similar for LHLT and HHHT samples. A higher fraction of secondary phases was found in the HHHT sample due to longer reheating at a high temperature. In conclusion, an acceptable austenite fraction with a low fraction of secondary phases was obtained in the bulk of wire-arc additively manufactured duplex stainless steel samples (35-60%), where higher austenite fractions formed with a larger number of reheating cycles as well as longer reheating at high peak temperatures (800-1200 degrees C).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. Vol. 63, no 4, p. 975-987
Keywords [en]
Duplex stainless steels; Additive manufacturing; GMAW; Thermal cycles; Austenite fraction; Secondary phases
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
ENGINEERING, Manufacturing and materials engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13947DOI: 10.1007/s40194-019-00735-yISI: 000468518900005Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85066099481OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hv-13947DiVA, id: diva2:1322622
Available from: 2019-06-11 Created: 2019-06-11 Last updated: 2019-06-11

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Hosseini, VahidHögström, MatsHurtig, KjellValiente Bermejo, María AsunciónStridh, Lars-ErikKarlsson, Leif
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