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The Impact on System Performance When Renovating a Multifamily Building Stock in a District Heated Region
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6120-4766
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7450-8489
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
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2019 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 8, article id 2199Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

In Sweden, 90% of multifamily buildings utilize district heat and a large portion is in need of renovation. The aim is to analyze the impact of renovating a multifamily building stock in a district heating and cooling system, in terms of primary energy savings, peak power demands, electricity demand and production, and greenhouse gas emissions on local and global levels. The study analyzes scenarios regarding measures on the building envelope, ventilation, and substitution from district heat to ground source heat pump. The results indicate improved energy performance for all scenarios, ranging from 11% to 56%. Moreover, the scenarios present a reduction of fossil fuel use and reduced peak power demand in the district heating and cooling system ranging from 1 MW to 13 MW, corresponding to 4–48 W/m2 heated building area. However, the study concludes that scenarios including a ground source heat pump generate significantly higher global greenhouse gas emissions relative to scenarios including district heating. Furthermore, in a future fossil-free district heating and cooling system, a reduction in primary energy use will lead to a local reduction of emissions along with a positive effect on global greenhouse gas emissions, outperforming measures with a ground source heat pump.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019. Vol. 11, no 8, article id 2199
Keywords [en]
district heating, multifamily buildings, renovation, primary energy use, energy system modeling, greenhouse gas emissions
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-157080DOI: 10.3390/su11082199ISI: 000467752200012Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85065422245OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-157080DiVA, id: diva2:1318344
Available from: 2019-05-27 Created: 2019-05-27 Last updated: 2019-09-18Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. A System Perspective on Energy End-Use Measures in a District Heated Region: Renovation of Buildings and Hydronic Pavement Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A System Perspective on Energy End-Use Measures in a District Heated Region: Renovation of Buildings and Hydronic Pavement Systems
2019 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A district heating and cooling (DHC) system can be a viable piece of the puzzle in the efforts of reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Especially if the DHC system include combined heat and power (CHP) plants which enable electricity production from renewable resources. This is set forth in national energy targets and sustainable development goals (SDGs), adopted by the United Nations in 2015. Moreover, improved energy efficiency and energy savings are important factors in fulfilling the national targets of decreased energy intensity as well as reducing the use of fossil fuels.

The aim of this thesis is to analyze the impacts of two energy end-use measures in a DHC network and their consequences on the efforts towards sustainable development. The end-use measures studied are (1) renovation of a multifamily building stock and (2) the use of a hydronic pavement system (HPS) including analysis of different control strategies. The end-use measures are assessed in terms of energy use and efficiency, use of renewable and fossil resources, and local and global GHG emissions. Lastly, it is analyzed how the results relate to national energy targets and SDGs. By using simulation and optimization models, several scenarios of end-use measures are analyzed in the two studies. In the first study, six scenarios are analyzed, as the renovation packages include measures on the envelope, ventilation and conversion from district heating to ground source heat pump. In the second study three scenarios are analyzed, where the HPS are operated all-time at a temperature below 4°C or are shut down at temperatures below -10°C or at temperatures below -5°C.

The results of the study regarding the renovation of a multifamily building stock indicate a future reduction in heat demand. All scenarios show energy savings of the studied building, which ranged from 11% to 56%. All scenarios show a reduction in local GHG emissions, as well as reduced fossil fuel use. Although the largest reduction was found in the use of renewable resources. From a global perspective on GHG emissions, the scenarios with district heating out-performed measures with heat pump solutions in the studied system. Moreover, the study point to positive impacts on the efforts towards SDGs.

To mitigate the reduced heat demand from the renovation of the building stock, an HPS may be used. The results show mostly renewable resources were used for the HPS. The use of HPS was found to generate a positive impact on global GHG emissions. A control strategy that shuts down the HPS at temperatures below -10°C would result in 10% energy saving and would maintain acceptable performance of the HPS. Furthermore, it would reduce the use of fossil fuel and reduce local GHG emissions by 25%. Moreover, an HPS may contribute to SDGs.

It is concluded that energy end-use measures of renovating a multifamily building stock are vital in the work towards an improved energy intensity. However, these measures result in a decreased demand for heat in the DHC network. This can then lead to reduced electricity production from renewable resources in the CHP plants, which in turn have a negative impact on the global GHG emissions. By finding new applications, like HPS, the infrastructure of DHC networks could be utilized efficiently and serve as one piece of the puzzle that is the efforts towards sustainable development.

Abstract [sv]

Ett fjärrvärme- och fjärrkylenätverk kan vara en viktig del i arbetet att minska växthusgasutsläppen. Speciellt då ett fjärrvärme- och fjärrkylenätverk nyttjar kraftvärme, vilket möjliggör elproduktion från förnybara resurser. Detta efterfrågas i de nationella energimålen och i de globala målen för hållbar utveckling, även kallade Agenda 2030, som antogs av Förenta Nationerna 2015. Dessutom är förbättrad energieffektivitet och energibesparing viktiga faktorer för att nå de nationella energimålen för minskad energiintensitet.

Syftet med denna avhandling är att analysera effekterna av två användningsåtgärder i ett fjärrvärme- och fjärrkylenätverk, samt dess konsekvenser för en hållbar utveckling. De åtgärder som undersöks är (1) renovering av ett flerbostadshusbestånd och (2) användningen av ett markvärmesystem. Användningsåtgärderna analyseras utifrån energianvändning och energibesparing, användning av förnybara och fossila resurser, samt lokala och globala växthusgasutsläpp. Slutligen analyseras hur resultaten relaterar till nationella energimålen och de globala målen för hållbar utveckling.

Genom att använda simulerings- och optimeringsmodeller analyseras flera scenarier av användningsåtgärder i de två studierna. I den första studien analyseras sex scenarier, där renoveringsåtgärderna innehåller klimatskals- och ventilationsåtgärder, samt ett byte av värmesystem från fjärrvärme till värmepump. I den andra studien analyseras tre scenarier. Ett då markvärmesystemet drivs kontinuerligt vid en utomhustemperatur under 4° C, samt då systemet även stängs av eller försätts i viloläge vid utomhustemperaturer under -10°C respektive -5°C.

Resultaten från den först studien pekar på ett minskat värmebehov i framtiden. Alla scenarierna innebar energibesparingar i den studerade byggnaden, som varierade från 11% till 56%. Alla scenarier uppvisade en minskning av lokala växthusgasutsläpp, samt minskning av fossil bränsleanvändning. Dock ses den största minskningen i användandet av förnybara resurser. I ett globalt perspektiv på växthusgasutsläpp, så presterar värmelösningar med fjärrvärme bättre än de med värmepump i de studerade systemen. Studien uppvisar positiva effekter på de nationella målen, samt de globala målen för hållbar utveckling.

För att möta den minskade värmebehovet kan ett markvärmesystem nyttjas. Resultaten visar att främst förnybara resurser används. Användningen av markvärme har en positiv inverkan på globala växthusgasutsläpp och en kontrollstrategi som försätter markvärmesystemet i vila vid temperaturer under -10°C kan resultera i 10% energibesparing samtidigt som en acceptabel prestanda bibehålls. Detta minskar den fossila bränsleanvändningen, samt de lokala växthusgasutsläppen med 25%. Ett markvärmesystem kan bidra i arbetet med de nationella målen, samt de globala målen för en hållbar utveckling.

Slutsatsen är att renovering av ett bestånd av flerbostadshus ska genomföras i arbetet för en minskad energiintensitet. Dessa åtgärder leder emellertid till en minskad efterfrågan på värme. Detta kan minska elproduktion från förnybara resurser i kraftvärmeanläggningarna, vilket i sin tur har en negativ inverkan på de globala växthusgasutsläppen. Genom att hitta nya applikationer, som markvärme, kan infrastrukturen i fjärrvärme- och fjärrkylenätverk nyttjas effektivt fortsättningsvis och fungera som en bit i pusslet för en hållbar utveckling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2019. p. 41
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Licentiate Thesis, ISSN 0280-7971 ; 1846
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-157082 (URN)10.3384/lic.diva-157082 (DOI)9789176850527 (ISBN)
Presentation
2019-06-19, ACAS, Hus A, Campus Valla, Linköping, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-05-27 Created: 2019-05-27 Last updated: 2019-06-04Bibliographically approved

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