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Distributed cold storages for district cooling in Sweden- The current context and opportunities for the cold supply expansion
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration. (Thermal Energy Storage (TES))ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1806-9749
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9556-552X
Norrenergi AB, Solna, Sweden.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
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2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This work analyzes the current context of district cooling (DC) in Sweden and thereby proposes opportunities in cost-effective and environmentally friendly expansion of cold supplies. The current state of DHC in Sweden here is mapped via a comprehensive literature assessment coupled with information collection from individual DHC suppliers in Sweden. These findings are concisely discussed herein, mapping the current context of DC in Sweden. The investigation here yields that the cold supply in Sweden today is achieved by employing free cooling (FC, extracting cold from natural cold sources, e.g. deep sea, river or lake water, via heat exchangers), absorption coolers (ACs), compression coolers (CCs) as well as heat pumps (HPs, with or without heat recovery), and cold storages (mainly using water). This technology mix is used in varying shares by different regions, based on the available resources, e.g. large water bodies to drive FC. When excess heat is available, AC is also a preferred choice. HPs are becoming increasingly interesting, for their synergies in simultaneously providing heat and cold. The peak demands of cold are met with cold storages as well as more ‘operationally’ expensive technologies, such as CCs. The cold storages primarily cover the daily cold peaks in summer, driven by the large differences in the cooling loads between the day and night. The current DC provision in Sweden is around 1 TWh, while the total cooling demand is around 3-5 TWh, therefore with a clear deficit in supply. Interestingly, the DC supply is projected to grow up to around 3 TWh by 2030. With population growth, the DC demands will also rise, and fulfilling these cooling demands with cost-effective and renewable solutions is imperative. To inspire the Swedish DC growth, herein certain international examples on power-to-cold (PtC) combining peak shaving with cold storages, e.g. based on water, ice, and thermochemical heat storage systems (TCS) are also discussed. Finally, critical reflections are given, identifying opportunities to improve the current context of DC in Sweden with cost-effective and environmental-friendly solutions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lleida, 2019. article id Y129
Keywords [en]
district cooling (DC), free cooling (FC), absorption coolers (CCs), compression coolers (CCs), Heat Pumps (HPs), cold storage, power-to-cold (PtC)
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-251920ISBN: 978-84-9144-155-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-251920DiVA, id: diva2:1317460
Conference
Eurotherm Seminar #112 : Advances in thermal energy storage, 15-17 May 2019, University of Lleida, Spain
Projects
Termo- Termiska energilager – lösningen för ett flexibelt energisystem
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

QC 20190523

Available from: 2019-05-22 Created: 2019-05-22 Last updated: 2019-05-23Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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