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Fire Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Road Vehicles
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7724-8467
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3019-0979
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The demand for lithium-ion battery powered road vehicles continues to increase around the world. As more of these become operational across the globe, their involvement in traffic accidents and fire incidents is likely to rise. This can damage the lithium-ion battery and subsequently pose a threat to occupants and responders as well as those involved in post-crash operations. There are many different types of lithium-ion batteries, with different packaging and chemistries but also variations in how they are integrated into modern vehicles. To use lithium-ion batteries safely means to keep the cells within a defined voltage and temperature window. These limits can be exceeded as a result of crash or fault conditions. This report provides background information regarding lithium-ion batteries and battery pack integration in vehicles. Fire hazards are identified and means for preventing and controlling them are presented. The possibility of fixed fire suppression and detection systems in electric vehicles is discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. , p. 107
Series
RISE Rapport ; 2019:50
Keywords [en]
Lithium-Ion Batteries, Electric Vehicles, Fire Risks, Post-Crash Handling, Risk Management, Fire Safety
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-38873ISBN: 978-91-88907-78-3 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-38873DiVA, id: diva2:1317419
Note

UPDATED VERSION:The report/full text has been updated 2019-09-23 according to following addition/clarification at the last paragraph on page 39:

Updated version published 2019-09-23, page 39: ”To mitigate this risk EVs must pass fire resistance testing, i.e. UNECE Reg. No. 100[144].  The  amount  of  time in which  the  battery  pack  is  exposed  to  external  flames  is  2 minutes. This test is similar to the test conducted on gasoline tanks. In the test the size of the fire is determined by the geometry of the battery or tank respectively. When there is no evidence of explosion during these 2 minutes or the following observation period, where the test object is to reach ambient temperatures or has its temperature decrease for at least 3 hours, this test can be considered passed.”

Original version published 2019-05-22, page 39: “To mitigate this risk EVs must pass fire resistance testing, i.e. UNECE Reg. No. 100[144].  The  amount  of  time in which  the  battery  pack  is  exposed  to  external  flames  is  2 minutes. This test is similar to the test conducted on gasoline tanks. In the test the size of the fire is determined by the geometry of the battery or tank respectively. When there is no evidence of explosion during these 2 minutes, this test can be considered passed.”

DOWNLOAD STATISTICS: Note: 932 downloads of the fullltext/report until 2019-09-23. This number was reset 2019-09-23 due to the aforementioned correction of the report.

PREFACE; FUNDING:The project (No. 45629-1) is financed by the Swedish FFI-program (Strategic Vehicle Research and Innovation) which is a partnership between the Swedish government and the automotive industry. Partners within this project comprise of RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Scania, Volvo Buses, SFVF (Swedish Association of Vehicle Workshops), Fogmaker International and Dafo Vehicle Fire Protection.

Available from: 2019-05-22 Created: 2019-05-22 Last updated: 2019-09-23Bibliographically approved

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