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Hur effektiv och säker är behandling med monoklonala antikroppar vid Alzheimers sjukdom?
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
2019 (Swedish)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [sv]

Alzheimers sjukdom, AD, är en progressiv neurodegenerativ sjukdom som orsakas av amyloida-beta plack (Ab) och nervtrådsnystan bestående av proteinet tau. Karakteristiskt för AD är förlusten av kolinerga nervceller i hippocampus och frontala cortex, som orsakar en försämring av korttidsminne och nedsatt kognitiv förmåga. Konventionella behandlingar med acetylkolinesterashämmare och NMDA-receptorantagonister har inte visat tillräcklig kognitiv effekt och behovet av behandling är stort. Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att undersöka kognitiv effekt och säkerhet av behandling med monoklonala antikroppar vid Alzheimers sjukdom. Antikropparna som studerades var bapineuzumab, solanezumab, gantenerumab, crenezumab och ponezumab, riktade mot epitoper på Ab, och BAN2401, riktad mot protofibriller. Samtliga antikroppar var av typen humaniserad eller human tillhörande G-klassen och undersöktes i fas II-III, randomiserade, dubbelblinda och placebokontrollerade studier på patienter med mild till måttlig AD. Undantaget är gantenerumab som studerades på patienter med prodromal AD. Studier av antikropparna i transgena möss har visat förändring av Ab och en viss effekt på minne, därav togs studierna vidare. Primära utfallsvariabler var Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale- Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog), Disability Assessment For Dementia (DAD), The Clinical Dementia Rating – Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB) och Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Resultat för bapineuzumab, gantenerumab, crenezumab och ponezumab visade ingen signifikant kognitiv effekt mellan studiestart och studieslut jämfört med placebo. För solanezumab observerades en statistiskt signifikant skillnad i ADAS-Cog (p = 0,04) och MMSE (p = 0,01) jämfört med placebo, dock var skillnaderna små. ADAS-Cog, -1,6 poäng med 95% konfidensintervall -3,1 till 0,1. MMSE, 0,8 poäng med 95 % konfidensintervall 0,2 till 1,4. För BAN2401 påvisades signifikant kognitiv effekt och den har tagits vidare för en fas III-studie. Samtliga antikroppar ansågs vara säkra för patienterna med avsikt på biverkningar, dock var risken för amyloid-related imaging abnormalities (ARIA) hög vid behandling med bapineuzumab och gantenerumab. Ett läkemedel mot denna förödande folkhälsosjukdom skulle innebära ett revolutionerande framsteg för människan, sjukvården och samhället.

Abstract [en]

Alzheimer’s disease, AD, is a progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by amyloid-beta plaques (Ab) and neurofibrillary tangles composed of tau. Characteristic of AD is a loss of cholinergic neurons located in hippocampus and frontal cortex, which results in impaired short-term-memory and cognitive function. The conventional therapies, acetyl-choline-esterase-inhibitors and NMDA-receptor-antagonists, have insufficient effects and the need for a new therapy is huge.

The aim of this literature study was to examinee cognitive effect and safety of therapy with monoclonal antibodies against AD. The analysed antibodies were bapineuzumab, solanezumab, gantenerumab, crenezumab and ponezumab, which are directed against epitopes of Ab, and BAN2401, which is directed against protofibrils. All antibodies were humanized or human of G-class and were examined in phase II – III, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled studies in patients with mild to moderate AD. The exception is gantenerumab which was studied in patients with prodromal AD. Previous studies of the antibodies in transgenic mice have shown a change in Ab and some effect on memory, hence the studies were taken to humans. 

Primary endpoints were Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale- Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog), Disability Assessment For Dementia (DAD), The Clinical Dementia Rating – Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Results for bapineuzumab, gantenerumab, crenezumab and ponezumab showed no significant cognitive effect between the start and the end of the studies, compared to placebo. There was a statistically significant difference in ADAS-Cog (p = 0,04) and MMSE (p = 0,01) between solanezumab and placebo, though the differences were small. ADAS-Cog, -1,6 points, with 95% confidence interval of -3,1 to 0,1. MMSE, 0,8 points, with 95% confidence interval of 0,2 to 1,4. BAN2401, with protofibrils as drug target, was the only antibody in which a significant cognitive effect was demonstrated. The study has been taken further to phase III. All antibodies were considered safe for patients with the intentions of adverse effects. However, the risk for amyloid-related imaging abnormalities (ARIA) was high in treatment with bapineuzumab and gantenerumab.

A drug against this devastating public health disease would mean a revolutionary advance for humans, health care and the society.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. , p. 45
Keywords [en]
alzheimer's disease
Keywords [sv]
alzheimers sjukdom, antikroppar, bapineuzumab, solanezumab, gantenerumab, crenezumab, ponezumab, BAN2401
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-82601OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-82601DiVA, id: diva2:1316487
Subject / course
Pharmacy
Educational program
Bachelor of Science Programme in Pharmacy, 180 credits
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2019-05-20 Created: 2019-05-18 Last updated: 2019-05-20Bibliographically approved

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