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Proximity Staining Using Enzymatic Protein Tagging in Diplomonads
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.
Karolinska Inst, Dept Lab Med, Stockholm, Sweden.
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology. Uppsala Univ, BMC, Dept Cell & Mol Biol, Uppsala, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7392-1746
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Microbiology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7992-7970
2019 (English)In: MSPHERE, ISSN 2379-5042, Vol. 4, no 2, article id e00153-19Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The diplomonads are a group of understudied eukaryotic flagellates whose most prominent member is the human pathogen Giardia intestinalis. Methods commonly used in other eukaryotic model systems often require special optimization in diplomonads due to the highly derived character of their cell biology. We have optimized a proximity labeling protocol using pea ascorbate peroxidase (APEX) as a reporter for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to enable the study of ultrastructural cellular details in diplomonads. Currently available TEM-compatible tags require light-induced activation (1, 2) or are inactive in many cellular compartments (3), while ascorbate peroxidase has not been shown to have those limitations. Here, we have optimized the in vivo activities of two versions of pea ascorbate peroxidase (APX(W41F) and APEX) using the diplomonad fish parasite Spironucleus salmonicida, a relative of G. intestinalis. We exploited the well-known peroxidase substrates, Amplex UltraRed and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB), to validate the activity of the two tags and argue that APEX is the most stable version to use in Spironucleus salmonicida. Next, we fused APEX to proteins with established localization to evaluate the activity of APEX in different cellular compartments of the diplomonad cell and used Amplex UltraRed as well as antibodies along with superresolution microscopy to confirm the protein-APEX localization. The ultrastructural details of protein-APEX fusions were determined by TEM, and we observed marker activity in all cellular compartments tested when using the DAB substrate. Finally, we show that the optimized conditions established for S. salmonicida can be used in the related diplomonad G. intestinalis. IMPORTANCE The function of many proteins is intrinsically related to their cellular location. Novel methods for ascertainment of the ultrastructural location of proteins have been introduced in recent years, but their implementation in protists has so far not been readily realized. Here, we present an optimized proximity labeling protocol using the APEX system in the salmon pathogen Spironucleus salmonicida. This protocol was also applicable to the human pathogen Giardia intestinalis. Both organisms required extraneous addition of hemin to the growth medium to enable detectable peroxidase activity. Further, we saw no inherent limitation in labeling efficiency coupled to the cellular compartment, as evident with some other proximity labeling systems. We anticipate that the APEX proximity labeling system might offer a great resource to establish the ultrastructural localization of proteins across genetically tractable protists but might require organism-specific labeling conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. Vol. 4, no 2, article id e00153-19
Keywords [en]
APEX, DAB, Giardia, proximity labeling, Spironucleus salmonicida
National Category
Cell Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-383485DOI: 10.1128/mSphereDirect.00153-19ISI: 000465544000005PubMedID: 30894436OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-383485DiVA, id: diva2:1316155
Funder
Swedish Research Council FormasAvailable from: 2019-05-16 Created: 2019-05-16 Last updated: 2019-05-16Bibliographically approved

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