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Finding a common ground: a pilot implementation of digital self-managment support in Swedish primary health care
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2803-8006
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Background: Due to an ageing, multi-diseased population, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and other chronic conditions pose a challenge for primary healthcare. To meet such challenges, primary healthcare nurses must adapt to new roles and acquire new skills regarding self-management support. eHealth and digital solutions are suggested to facilitate the increasing need for care in chronic conditions. However, how these solutions are experienced among users has not yet been sufficiently explored. To successful implement new working methods in primary healthcare, it is important to identify prerequisites and barriers that exists.

Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was to explore perceptions among primary healthcare nurses and patients about digital self-management support in T2D and also to develop and evaluate a digital screening instrument assessing individual needs for self-management support. This thesis is based on four papers. Papers I and II aimed to describe perceptions among primary healthcare nurses and persons with T2D of using eHealth services for self-management support. Paper III aimed to develop and psychometrically test a screening instrument for person-centred guidance and self-management support. Paper IV aimed to describe diabetes specialist nurses’ experiences of a pilot implementation of the instrument labelled the Self-Management Assessment Scale (SMASc) as a basis for person-centred digital self-management support.

Methods: A combined approach was used to collect and analyse data. Data in the qualitative studies were collected by means of focus group interviews (I) and individual interviews (II, IV) as well as participant observations (IV) were analysed using qualitative content analysis (I, II, IV). Quantitative data in study III were psychometrically tested. The participants in the respective studies were in Paper I primary healthcare nurses (n = 24), in Papers II and III persons with T2D (n = 11; n = 104) and in Paper IV diabetes specialist nurses (n = 5) and persons with T2D (n = 14). All data were collected in a county in northern Sweden.

Results: The overall results constituted a web of mixed experiences and feelings towards using digital self-management support. Primary healthcare nurses pronounced their ambivalence towards the digital development in healthcare (I). Patients as well had mixed feelings, but they also pronounced benefits and potentials leading to increased involvement and empowerment (II). The psychometric assessment of the screening instrument, SMASc, demonstrated high potential and promising results for clinical assessments on factors affecting self-management behaviours (III). Preliminary results suggest that the SMASc instrument is considered suitable for screening of patients’ needs for self-management support (IV). 

Conclusion: The results of this thesis suggest that digitalization needs stepwise implementation. Digital tools such as the SMASc instrument can be useful in facilitating identification of patients in need of targeted interventions. However, primary healthcare nurses must be open to discussing patients’ emotional adaptation to the disease as well as the knowledge, sometimes not evidence based, the patients may have obtained from Internet sources. Targeted self-management support including person-centred guidance is suggested to be an effective way to achieve patient.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2019. , p. 77
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 2037
Keywords [en]
Type 2 diabetes, diabetes specialist nurse, district nurse, diabetes care, primary healthcare, eHealth, digitalization, technology, person-centred care, self-management, self-management support, qualitative research, questionnaire, psychometrics, pilot implementation
National Category
Nursing
Research subject
Caring Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-158932ISBN: 978-91-7855-081-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-158932DiVA, id: diva2:1316046
Public defence
2019-06-07, Aulan, Vårdvetarhuset, Umeå, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-05-17 Created: 2019-05-15 Last updated: 2019-05-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Swedish primary healthcare nurses' perceptions of using digital eHealth services in support of patient self-management
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Swedish primary healthcare nurses' perceptions of using digital eHealth services in support of patient self-management
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2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 961-970Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Nurses have expressed doubts about the ongoing digitalisation of Swedish primary health care. Given the potential role of eHealth in primary health care, including supporting interactive self-management for people with chronic conditions, it is important to highlight nurses' experiences. This study is part of a larger project aimed at implementing person-centred interactive self-management support (iSMS) in primary health care.

AIM: The aim of this study was to describe Swedish primary healthcare nurses' perceptions of using digital eHealth systems and services to support patient self-management.

METHODS: Focus group interviews were conducted with primary healthcare nurses (n = 20). The interview transcriptions were analysed using qualitative content analysis.

RESULTS: Three themes emerged from the content analysis: caregiving in the midst of digital chaos; a lack of overview and control in daily work; and mixed feelings towards digitalisation. Each theme was subdivided into three subthemes.

CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The results of this study provide insight into a number of concerns that stand in the way of success when it comes to the implementation and use of digital technology. If nurses are to adapt to the new policies and practices that accompany the current digitalised development in Swedish primary health care, the concept of a nurse's traditional work role needs to be amended in terms of the scope of work tasks and established views of traditional nursing. The study also highlights the need for more research to enable eHealth systems/services to be designed to fulfil multiple requirements. The digitised systems should be a tool for achieving good quality self-management support as well as giving the primary healthcare nurses adequate resources to support patients' self-management while still maintaining the values associated with person-centred care.

Keywords
chronic conditions, eHealth, nurses, primary health care, self-management, technology, type 2 diabetes
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-145996 (URN)10.1111/scs.12534 (DOI)000436254800053 ()28960451 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-03-26 Created: 2018-03-26 Last updated: 2019-05-16Bibliographically approved
2. Perceptions of Persons With Type 2 Diabetes Treated in Swedish Primary Health Care: Qualitative Study on Using eHealth Services for Self-Management Support
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perceptions of Persons With Type 2 Diabetes Treated in Swedish Primary Health Care: Qualitative Study on Using eHealth Services for Self-Management Support
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2018 (English)In: JMIR Diabetes, ISSN 2371-4379, Vol. 3, no 1, article id e7Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Digital health services are increasing rapidly worldwide. Strategies to involve patients in self-monitoring of type 2 diabetes (T2D) on a daily basis is of crucial importance, and there is a need to optimize the delivery of care such as self-management support. Digitalized solutions have the potential to modify and personalize the way in which people use primary health services, both by increasing access to information and providing other forms of support at a distance. It is a challenge to integrate core values of person-centered care into digitalized health care services.

Objective: The objective of this study was to describe perceptions of using electronic health (eHealth) services and related technologies for self-management support among people with T2D treated in Swedish primary health care.

Methods: This is a qualitative study based on interviews analyzed using qualitative content analysis conducted among people diagnosed with T2D.

Results: Findings suggest that the participants had mixed feelings regarding the use of digital health services for self-management support. They experienced potentials such as increased involvement, empowerment, and security, as well as concerns such as ambivalence and uncertainty.

Conclusions: Digital health services for self-management are easily accessible and have the potential to reach a wide population. However, targeted training to increase digital skills is required, and personalized devices must be adapted and become more person-centered to improve patients’ involvement in their own care.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
JMIR Publications, 2018
Keywords
eHealth, internet, type 2 diabetes, self-management, primary health care, qualitative research
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-145997 (URN)10.2196/diabetes.9059 (DOI)30291075 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85047781902 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-03-26 Created: 2018-03-26 Last updated: 2019-05-16Bibliographically approved
3. The Self‐Management Assessment Scale: development and psychometric testing of a screening instrument for person‐centred guidance and self‐management support
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Self‐Management Assessment Scale: development and psychometric testing of a screening instrument for person‐centred guidance and self‐management support
2019 (English)In: Nursing Open, E-ISSN 2054-1058, Vol. 6, p. 504-513Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: To develop and psychometrically test the Self‐Management Assessment Scale (SMASc), a screening instrument for person‐centred guidance and self‐management support of persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D).

Background: T2D is a common and globally increasing chronic condition. Improved self‐management is a vital and integral component of diabetes care to prevent complications from poorly managed diabetes. For diabetes nurses to better understand persons with diabetes experienced challenges and needs regarding self‐management and further for persons with T2D to take an active role in managing their condition, an instrument measuring this is needed.

Design: Instrument development and psychometric testing of the content and construct validity, factor structure and reliability.

Method: The SMASc was psychometric tested on a sample of participants (September 2017–November 2017) with a confirmed diagnosis of T2D (N = 104).

Results: Psychometric findings were satisfactory and supported the scale´s reliability. Cronbach's alpha, CVI and goodness‐of‐fit were acceptable.

Conclusion: Self‐Management Assessment Scale is a short validated screening instrument, which can indicate possible barriers for self‐management that ought to be approached during the conversation between the person with T2D and the primary healthcare nurses. Therefore, it is a promising instrument to be used to facilitate person‐centred guidance and to improve self‐management of people living with T2D.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
instrument development, nursing, person‐centred care, psychometric properties, self‐management support, type 2 diabetes
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-155317 (URN)10.1002/nop2.233 (DOI)000461835600030 ()30918701 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Diabetes Association
Available from: 2019-01-11 Created: 2019-01-11 Last updated: 2019-05-16Bibliographically approved
4. Using the Self‐Management Assessment Scale (SMASc) as an instrument for screening self-management support needs in type 2 diabetes: experiences from nurse-led digital self-management support in Swedish primary health care
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using the Self‐Management Assessment Scale (SMASc) as an instrument for screening self-management support needs in type 2 diabetes: experiences from nurse-led digital self-management support in Swedish primary health care
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Health Sciences
Research subject
Caring Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-158985 (URN)
Available from: 2019-05-15 Created: 2019-05-15 Last updated: 2019-06-13

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