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Stability and uptake of methylphenidate and ritalinic acid in nine-spine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) and water louse (Asellus aquaticus)
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5426-9652
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
2019 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 26, no 9, p. 9371-9378Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The presence of human pharmaceuticals in the environment has garnered significant research attention because these compounds may exert therapeutic effects on exposed wildlife. Yet, for many compounds, there is still little research documenting their stability in the water column and uptake in organism tissues. Here, we measured the uptake and stability of methylphenidate (Ritalin (R), a frequently prescribed central nervous system stimulant) and its primary metabolite, ritalinic acid, in (1) water only or (2) with nine-spine stickleback and water louse. Methylphenidate degraded to ritalinic acid in both studies faster at a higher temperature (20 degrees C versus 10 degrees C), with concentrations of ritalinic acid surpassing methylphenidate after 48-100 h, depending on temperature. The concentration of methylphenidate in stickleback was highest at the first sampling point (60 min), while the concentration in water louse tissues reached comparatively higher levels and peaked after similar to 6 days. Neither stickleback nor water louse took up ritalinic acid in tissues despite being present in the water column. Our findings provide valuable data for use in future risk assessment of methylphenidate and will aid in the design of studies aimed at measuring any ecotoxicological effects on, for example, the behaviour or physiology of aquatic organisms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019. Vol. 26, no 9, p. 9371-9378
Keywords [en]
Pharmaceuticals, Ecotoxicology, Stimulant, Behaviour, Methylphenidate, Aquatic organisms
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-158603DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-04557-9ISI: 000464851100088PubMedID: 30805842OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-158603DiVA, id: diva2:1314449
Available from: 2019-05-08 Created: 2019-05-08 Last updated: 2019-05-08Bibliographically approved

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