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Fractionation of the main components of barley spent grains from a microbrewery
University of Borås, School of Engineering.
2009 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
Abstract [en]

Barley spent grain, the main residue of the brewing industry, is a lignocellulosic material, which could be considered a potential raw material for ethanol production. In this work, spent grains generated in a microbrewery were fractionated by acid hydrolysis and delignification. The investigated sort of barley spent grains had high carbohydrate content, accounting for 60% of the dry matter, while its lignin content was lower than that reported for other sorts of spent grains. Since the used spent grains contained residual starch different treatment approaches were used for separating their main components without affecting the sugars generated by starch hydrolysis. Two kinds of acid hydrolysis processes, namely single-step and two-step hydrolysis, were used for solubilising the carbohydrate fraction. Single-step hydrolysis was performed either at 100oC or at 121oC. In the two-step approach, a second hydrolysis, at 121oC, was performed after the first hydrolysis step. The dilute-acid hydrolysis at 100oC removed all the starch, whereas the hydrolysis at 121oC removed also a part of the hemicelluloses in addition to starch. During the second hydrolysis step, the content of easily hydrolysable polysaccharides decreased from 32.5 to 7.6% in the material pre-hydrolyzed at 100oC and from 20.3 to 10.6% in the material pre-hydrolyzed at 121oC. The amount of easily hydrolysable polysaccharides removed in the second step corresponded to 83% and 81.5% of the total removed matter in the materials pre-hydrolyzed at 100 and 121oC, respectively. In the next step, acetosolv and alkaline delignification, either alone or combined with acid hydrolysis, were used for dissolving the lignin fraction. A higher solubilisation occurred after alkaline delignification, where 83% of the initial material was removed. Only 34% of the initial lignin was removed by direct acetosolv, while the combined acid hydrolysis/acetosolv approach resulted in lignin removal between 70 and 75%. However, the resulted pulp still contained important amount of lignin. The acid prehydrolysis was also beneficial for alkaline delignification, but the effect was less noticeable than for acetosolv. Lignin removal increased from 95% in direct alkaline delignification to nearly 100% in the acid hydrolysis-assisted alkaline treatment. Two different methods were carried out for lignin precipitation. In the liquid fraction obtained by acetosolv, lignin was precipitated by water addition after concentration of the liquors to 75% of the initial volume. Although the visual inspection of the liquors after water addition revealed a relatively good lignin precipitation, the separation by filtration of the precipitated material was difficult, apparently due to the small particle size of precipitated lignin molecules. Some improvement was observed for the combined treatments, especially for those including two-step acid hydrolysis. The best recovery, 54% of the precipitated lignin, occurred for the process including consecutive acid hydrolyses at 100 and then at 121oC before acetosolv. In the alkaline liquors, lignin was precipitated by pH adjustment to 2.0 by HCl. Around 40.5% of the solubilised lignin was precipitated, and it increased to 85-100% when combined treatments were applied. The best results were achieved upon the treatment including acid prehydrolysis at 121oC before alkaline process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
University of Borås/School of Engineering , 2009.
Series
Magisteruppsats
Keywords [en]
barley spent grain, delignification, acetosolv, naoh, acid hydrolysis, alkaline delignification
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hb:diva-19581Local ID: 2320/5481OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hb-19581DiVA, id: diva2:1311515
Available from: 2019-04-30 Created: 2019-04-30

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