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The role of primary austenite morphology in cast iron
Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH, Materials and Manufacturing.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6339-4292
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Automotive industry products portfolio includes a wide variety of complex-shaped cast iron products, such as truck engine components. Urged by strict environmental regulations on emissions, these components constantly need to combine higher demands on performance with lighter designs. As a result, cast iron industry continuously faces new challenges related to solidification of new alloys, component designs and casting processes.

Complex shapes, variations in the thickness of the casting and the molding material strongly influence the solidification time for a component, thus varying its microstructural coarseness and hence showing different properties depending on the local shape of the casting.

This work increases our understanding of the morphological evolution of primary austenite occurring during isothermal coarsening at the semi-solid state. New experimental techniques have been developed to show that primary austenite coarsens according to the Ostwald ripening model in lamellar (LGI), compacted (CGI)and spheroidal (SGI) graphite iron. Significant morphological changes occur after long coarsening times, including dendrite fragmentation and coalescence. The quantitative characterization of the morphological changes during coarsening is accurately described by morphological parameters, i.e., Mγ, DIDHyd and DγNN.

Subsequently, the impact of primary austenite morphology on the eutectic microstructures in CGI and SGI has been investigated. It was observed that the eutectic microstructures are not significantly affected by the surface area of primary austenite and the size of the interdendritic regions. Fraction, nodularity, shape distribution of graphite particles and the number of nodules and eutectic cells are similar as a function of coarsening time. These results suggest that the nucleation frequency and growth of eutectic microstructures are not significantly influenced by the morphology of primary austenite.

Furthermore, miniaturized tensile tests demonstrated that the UTS in CGI is directly related to the primary austenite morphology. The UTS decreases with the increasing coarseness of primary austenite, showing an inverse linear relation to Mγ, DIDHyd and DγNN. These results demonstrate the strong impact of primary austenite morphology on UTS when the eutectic and eutectoid microstructures are similar, emphasizing the importance of incorporating the morphology of primary austenite in our models.

Abstract [sv]

Fordonsindustrins produktportfölj innehåller en mängd olika gjutjärnskomponenter med komplicerad geometri, exempelvis komponenter till lastbilsmotorer. Skärpt lagstiftning beträffande olika miljöpåverkande utsläpp har höjt kraven på sådana komponenter vad gäller både mekaniska egenskaper och vikt. Gjutjärnsgjuterierna måste ständigt hantera nya utmaningar beträffande stelning av ny legeringar, komponentkonstruktion och gjutprocesser.

Den lokala stelningstiden kommer att variera med varierande tjocklek på såväl gjutstycke som formmaterial vilket ger stora variationer i mikrostrukturens grovlek. Denna mikrostrukturvariation leder till väsentliga skillnader i mekaniska egenskaper inom ett gjutstycke med komplex geometri.

I detta arbete studeras hur den primära austenitens morfologi förändras under så kallad isoterm förgrovning i gjutjärn i delvis stelnat tillstånd. Nyutvecklade experimentella metoder har använts för att visa att austeniten i gjutjärn med lamellärgrafit (LGI), vermikulär/kompakt grafit (CGI) samt sfärisk grafit (SGI) förgrovas i enlighet med Ostwalds modell för förgrovning. Austenitmorfologin förändras högstavsevärt efter långa hålltider vid relevanta temperaturer för förgrovning, även genom dendritfragmentering och koalescens. Morfologiförändringarna kankvantifieras tämligen väl med morfologiparametrarna Mγ, DIDHyd och DγNN.

Vidare har den primära austenitens påverkan på den eutektiska mikrostrukturen i CGI och SGI studerats. En observation var att den eutektiska mikrostrukturen inte påverkas av ytarean av den primära austeniten eller av storleken av de interdendritiska områdena. Fraktionen grafit, nodulariteten, grafitens formfördelning, antalet noduler samt antalet eutektiska celler påverkas på likartat sätt av förgrovningsprocessen. Detta antyder att kärnbildningsfrekvensen och tillväxten av eutektisk struktur inte påverkas i någon större utsträckning av den primära austenitens morfologi.

Dragprovning av stavar i miniatyrformat visade att dragbrottgränsen (UTS) hos CGI är direkt beroende av den primära austenitens morfologi. UTS är linjärt avtagande med ökande Mγ, DIDHyd och DγNN vilket visar att den primära austenitens morfologi har en stark påverkan på gjutjärns mekaniska egenskaper. Alltså bör de modeller som används för att prediktera gjutjärns egenskaper innehålla den primära austenitens morfologi.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Jönköping: Jönköping University, School of Engineering , 2019. , p. 74
Series
JTH Dissertation Series ; 040
Keywords [en]
Solidification, Cast Iron, Primary Austenite, Microstructure Evolution, Coarsening, LGI, CGI, SGI, UTS
Keywords [sv]
stelning, gjutjärn, primär austenit, mikrostrukturbildning, förgrovning, LGI, CGI, SGI, UTS
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-43553ISBN: 978-91-87289-42-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hj-43553DiVA, id: diva2:1307841
Public defence
2019-05-21, E1405, School of Engineering, Jönköping, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-04-29 Created: 2019-04-29 Last updated: 2019-04-29Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. An overview of isothermal coarsening in hypoeutectic lamellar cast iron
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An overview of isothermal coarsening in hypoeutectic lamellar cast iron
2015 (English)In: Advances in the science and engineering of casting solidification: An MPMD symposium honoring Doru Michael Stefanescu / [ed] Laurentiu Nastac, Baicheng Liu, Hasse Fredriksson, Jacques Lacaze, Chun-Pyo Hong, Adrian Catalina, Andreas Buhrig-Polaczek, Daan M. Maijer, Charles Andrew Monroe, Adrian Sabau, Roxana Ruxanda, Alan A. Luo, Subhayu Sen, Attila Diószegi, Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2015, p. 295-302Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A complete qualitative characterization of the isothermal coarsening process in hypoeutectic lamellar cast iron is presented for the first time in this work. Interrupted solidification experiments were used to study the evolution of the dendritic austenite network under long term isothermal conditions. Cylindrical samples were re-melted and isothermally coarsened for times from 2 minutes to 6 days at 1175°C after dendritic coherence was reached. Micrographs from horizontal and vertical sections of the coarsened samples are presented. Complete fragmentation of the dendrite network and further rearrangement of the solid phase are reported as new behaviors in the coarsening process in lamellar cast iron. A linear increase in secondary dendrite arm spacing in agreement with the literature is observed in the first several samples confirming qualitative observations. A new model is proposed which describes the entire coarsening process observed in this investigation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2015
Keywords
Lamellar Cast Iron; Coarsening; Ripening; Dendrite Morphology; Solidification
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-27639 (URN)10.1002/9781119093367.ch35 (DOI)2-s2.0-84931418627 (Scopus ID)9781119082385 (ISBN)9781119093367 (ISBN)
Conference
The honorary symposium "Advances in the Science and Engineering of Casting Solidification" (TMS2015, Orlando, Florida, March 15-19, 2015) held in honor of Professor Doru Michael Stefanescu, Emeritus Professor, Ohio State University and the University of Alabama, USA.
Available from: 2015-07-28 Created: 2015-07-28 Last updated: 2019-04-29Bibliographically approved
2. The morphological evolution of primary austenite during isothermal coarsening
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The morphological evolution of primary austenite during isothermal coarsening
2017 (English)In: Materials Characterization, ISSN 1044-5803, E-ISSN 1873-4189, Vol. 131, p. 492-499Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The morphological evolution of primary austenite in an industrial hypoeutectic lamellar cast iron was studied under isothermal conditions for coarsening times varying from 0 min to 96 h. The dendritic austenite structure formed during the primary solidification suffered major morphological changes during the isothermal coarsening process. After a sufficient coarsening time, dendrite fragmentation, globularization, and coalescence of austenite were studied using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique. This study confirmed that the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) is an inappropriate length scale to describe the primary austenite coarsening process for longer times. The application of shape independent quantitative parameters confirmed the reduction of the total interfacial area during microstructural coarsening. The modulus of the primary austenite, Mγ, which represents the volume-surface ratio for the austenite phase, and the spatial distribution of the austenite particles, measured as the nearest distance between the center of gravity of neighboring particles, Dγ, followed a linear relation with the cube root of coarsening time during the whole coarsening process. The mean curvature of the austenite interface, characterized through stereological relations, showed a linear relation to Mγ and Dγ, allowing the quantitative characterization and modeling of the complete coarsening process of primary austenite.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Dendrite fragmentation, Dendritic coarsening, EBSD, Microstructure evolution, Primary austenite, Austenite, Cast iron, Isotherms, Microstructure, Dendrite fragmentations, Electron backscatter diffraction technique, Micro-structure evolutions, Microstructural coarsening, Quantitative characterization, Secondary dendrite arm spacing, Coarsening
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-36890 (URN)10.1016/j.matchar.2017.07.030 (DOI)000411535600054 ()2-s2.0-85026387205 (Scopus ID)
Note

Included in licentiate thesis in submitted form.

Available from: 2017-08-16 Created: 2017-08-16 Last updated: 2019-04-29Bibliographically approved
3. Quantification of dendritic austenite after interrupted solidification in a hypoeutectic lamellar graphite iron
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantification of dendritic austenite after interrupted solidification in a hypoeutectic lamellar graphite iron
2016 (English)In: Metallography, Microstructure, and Analysis, ISSN 2192-9270, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 28-42Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an unconventional etching technique to reveal the microstructure in a hypoeutectic lamellar graphite iron that has been quenched after isothermal heat treatment in the proeutectic semi-solid temperature region. A technique for quantifying the dendrite microstructure using the aforementioned etching technique involving a combination of a raster graphics editor and an image analysis software is outlined. The agreement between this quantification technique with regard to volume fraction and surface area per unit volume of the dendritic austenite and corresponding point counting and line intercept techniques is analyzed. The etching technique was found useful but sporadic tinting of martensite was problematic. Some measurements showed significant systematic disagreement which correlated with the coarseness of the measured dendrites. Most systematic disagreement is attributed to difficulties in defining the dendrite boundary in the analogues and much of the random disagreement to easily identified discrepancies between the analogue and the micrograph.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Springer, 2016
Keywords
Cast iron, Quantitative metallography, Color metallography, Microstructure
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-28880 (URN)10.1007/s13632-015-0250-0 (DOI)000377604200007 ()2-s2.0-84960404906 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Spofic II
Funder
VINNOVA, 2013-04720
Note

One of five papers selected for the 2016 Editor’s Choice.

Available from: 2016-01-07 Created: 2016-01-07 Last updated: 2019-05-13Bibliographically approved
4. Influence of Ti and Mo additions on the isothermal coarsening process of primary austenite in Lamellar Graphite Iron
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Ti and Mo additions on the isothermal coarsening process of primary austenite in Lamellar Graphite Iron
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Brunel Centre for Advanced Solidification Technology (BCAST), 2017
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-35581 (URN)
Conference
6th Decennial International Conference on Solidification Processing, Old Windsor, UK, 25th‐28th July 2017.
Available from: 2017-05-22 Created: 2017-05-22 Last updated: 2019-04-29Bibliographically approved
5. New experimental technique for nodularity and Mg fading control in compacted graphite iron production on laboratory scale
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New experimental technique for nodularity and Mg fading control in compacted graphite iron production on laboratory scale
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 48, no 11, p. 5432-5441Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The narrow production window for compacted graphite iron material (CGI) drastically reduces the possibilities to produce it in small batches outside an industrial environment. This fact hinders laboratory-scale investigations on CGI solidification. This work presents a solution to that issue by introducing an experimental technique to produce graphitic cast iron of the main three families. Samples of a base hypereutectic spheroidal graphite iron (SGI) were re-melted in a resistance furnace under Ar atmosphere. Varying the holding time at 1723 K (1450 °C), graphitic irons ranging from spheroidal to lamellar were produced. Characterization of the graphite morphology evolution, in terms of nodularity as a function of holding time, is presented. The nodularity decay for the SGI region suggests a linear correlation with the holding time. In the CGI region, nodularity deterioration shows a slower rate, concluding with the sudden appearance of lamellar graphite. The fading process of magnesium, showing agreement with previous researchers, is described by means of empirical relations as a function of holding time and nodularity. The results on nodularity fade and number of nodules per unit area fade suggest that both phenomena occur simultaneously during the fading process of magnesium.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-35584 (URN)10.1007/s11661-017-4315-3 (DOI)000412849400027 ()2-s2.0-85029483568 (Scopus ID)
Note

Included in licentiate thesis in submitted manuscript version with title "New experimental technique for nodularity and Mg fading control in CGI production on laboratory scale".

Available from: 2017-09-15 Created: 2017-05-22 Last updated: 2019-04-29Bibliographically approved
6. On the primary solidification of compacted graphite iron: Microstructure evolution during isothermal coarsening
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the primary solidification of compacted graphite iron: Microstructure evolution during isothermal coarsening
2018 (English)In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 925, p. 90-97Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is widely accepted that in most commercial hypoeutectic alloys, both static mechanicalproperties and feeding characteristics during solidification, are extremely linked to the coarseness ofthe primary phase. It is therefore of critical importance to provide tools to control and predict thecoarsening process of the dendritic phase present in hypoeutectic melts. The characterization of theprimary phase, a product of the primary solidification, has traditionally been neglected whencompared to the eutectic solidification characterization in cast iron investigations. This workpresents the morphological evolution of the primary austenite present in a hypoeutectic compactedgraphite cast iron (CGI) under isothermal conditions. To that purpose, a base spheroidal graphitecast iron (SGI) material with high Mg content is re-melted in a controlled atmosphere and reversedinto a CGI melt by controlling the Mg fading. An experimental isothermal profile is applied to thesolidification process of the experimental alloy to promote an isothermal coarsening process of theprimary austenite dendrite network during solid and liquid coexistence. Through interruptedsolidification experiments, the primary austenite is preserved and observed at room temperature. Byapplication of stereological relations, the primary phase and its isothermal coarsening process arecharacterized as a function of the coarsening time applied. The microstructural evolution observedin the primary austenite in CGI and the measured morphological parameters show a similar trend tothat observed for lamellar graphite cast iron (LGI) in previous investigations. The modulus of theprimary austenite, Mγ, and the nearest distance between the centre of gravity of neighbouringaustenite particles, Dγ, followed a linear relation with the cube root of coarsening time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trans Tech Publications, 2018
Keywords
Primary austenite, Microstructure evolution, Dendritic coarsening, Compacted Graphite Iron, CGI
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-40548 (URN)10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.925.90 (DOI)XYZ ()2-s2.0-85050029582 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-06-19 Created: 2018-06-19 Last updated: 2019-04-29Bibliographically approved
7. Evolution of primary austenite and its influence on eutectic microstructures during coarsening of Fe-C-Si alloys
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolution of primary austenite and its influence on eutectic microstructures during coarsening of Fe-C-Si alloys
2019 (English)In: Materialia, ISSN 2589-1529, Vol. 7, article id 100391Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The evolution of primary austenite morphology during isothermal coarsening has been studied in the three main Fe–C–Si alloys used in industry, LGI, CGI, and SGI. The dendritic microstructure increases length scale during coarsening accompanied by fragmentation and coalescence of austenite crystals. The morphological parameters, SDAS, Mγ, DhydID, and Dγ show a linear relation with the cube root of coarsening time, t1/3, with similar rates for the three different Fe–C–Si alloys. The eutectic microstructures after coarsening of primary austenite in CGI and SGI alloys are not significantly affected by the surface area of primary austenite and the size of the interdendritic regions. Fraction, nodularity, shape distribution of graphite particles and the number of nodules and eutectic cells are similar when studied as a function of coarsening time. These results suggest that the nucleation frequency in CGI and SGI, and the growth of eutectic microstructures in CGI, are not significantly influenced by the morphology of primary austenite.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Solidification; Coarsening; Dendrites; Austenite; Eutectic; EBSD; CGI; SGI
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-43552 (URN)10.1016/j.mtla.2019.100391 (DOI)2-s2.0-85068795536 (Scopus ID)PP JTH 2019 embargo 24 (Local ID)PP JTH 2019 embargo 24 (Archive number)PP JTH 2019 embargo 24 (OAI)
Funder
VinnovaKnowledge Foundation
Note

Included in thesis in manuscript form with the title "Evolution of primary austenite and its influence on eutectic microstructures during coarsening of Fe-C-Si alloys".

Available from: 2019-04-29 Created: 2019-04-29 Last updated: 2019-09-02Bibliographically approved
8. The effect of coarsening of primary austenite on the ultimate tensile strength of hypoeutectic compacted graphite Fe-C-Si alloys
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of coarsening of primary austenite on the ultimate tensile strength of hypoeutectic compacted graphite Fe-C-Si alloys
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Scripta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6462, E-ISSN 1872-8456, Vol. 168, p. 33-37Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effect of primary austenite morphology on the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of hypoeutectic compacted graphite Fe-C-Si alloys (CGI) is studied by isothermal coarsening experiments. Secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) and the morphological characteristics related to the surface area of primary austenite, M γ and D ID Hyd , increase with the cube root of coarsening time. UTS decreases linearly with increasing coarseness of primary austenite. The eutectic and eutectoid microstructures are unaffected by the primary austenite morphology. These observations demonstrate the strong influence of primary austenite morphology on the mechanical properties of hypoeutectic CGI alloys.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Coarsening, Compacted graphite iron, Dendrites, Mechanical properties, UTS, Austenite, Dendrites (metallography), Graphite, Morphology, Ostwald ripening, Silicon alloys, Tensile strength, Morphological characteristic, Primary austenite, Secondary dendrite arm spacing, Si alloys, Surface area, Ultimate tensile strength, Iron alloys
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-43550 (URN)10.1016/j.scriptamat.2019.04.010 (DOI)000470798400008 ()2-s2.0-85064563538 (Scopus ID)PP JTH 2019 embargo 24 (Local ID)PP JTH 2019 embargo 24 (Archive number)PP JTH 2019 embargo 24 (OAI)
Funder
Vinnova, 2013-03303; 2013-04720Knowledge Foundation, 2018-0033
Available from: 2019-04-29 Created: 2019-04-29 Last updated: 2019-08-06Bibliographically approved
9. Size distribution of graphite nodules in hypereutectic cast irons of varying nodularity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Size distribution of graphite nodules in hypereutectic cast irons of varying nodularity
2018 (English)In: Metallurgical and materials transactions. B, process metallurgy and materials processing science, ISSN 1073-5615, E-ISSN 1543-1916, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 2487-2504Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An SGI was machined into 400 g cylindrical pieces and remelted in an electrical resistance furnace protected by Ar gas to produce materials ranging from SGI to CGI. The graphite morphology was controlled by varying the holding time at 1723 K (1450 °C) between 10 and 60 minutes. The discrete sectional size distribution of nodules by number density was measured on cross sections of the specimens and translated to volumetric distribution by volume fraction. Subpopulations of nodules were distinguished by fitting Gaussian distribution functions to the measured distribution. Primary and eutectic graphite, were found to account for most of the volume of nodular graphite in all cases. For holding times of 40 minutes and greater, corresponding to nodularity roughly below 40 pct, the primary subpopulation was very small and difficult to distinguish, leaving eutectic nodules as the dominant subpopulation. The mode and standard deviation of the two subpopulations were roughly independent of nodularity. Moreover, the nodular and vermicular graphite were segregated in the microstructure. In conclusion, the results suggest that the parallel development of the vermicular eutectic had small influence on the size distribution of eutectic graphite nodules.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-35530 (URN)10.1007/s11663-018-1274-z (DOI)000444765500033 ()2-s2.0-85048767236 (Scopus ID)HOA JTH 2018 (Local ID)HOA JTH 2018 (Archive number)HOA JTH 2018 (OAI)
Note

Included in licentiate thesis by Björn Domeij (2017), On the solidification of compacted and spheroidal graphite irons, as manuscript.

Available from: 2017-05-16 Created: 2017-05-16 Last updated: 2019-05-13Bibliographically approved
10. Revisiting the graphite nodule in ductile iron
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Revisiting the graphite nodule in ductile iron
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Scripta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6462, E-ISSN 1872-8456, Vol. 161, p. 66-69Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The growth mechanism of graphite nodules in ductile iron was experimentally investigated using high-resolution 3D tomography of an individual graphite nodule in a near-eutectic ductile iron. The dual beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) technique was used for this purpose. Iron particles elongated in the radial direction were observed inside a graphite nodule. Some micro-voids were detected inside the nodule, mostly located at the end of the iron particles. These observations were compared with established theories about the growth of graphite nodules and iron entrapment/engulfment in between the graphite sectors during solidification of ductile iron. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
3D reconstruction, FIB, Growth mechanism, Solidification, Ductility, Graphite, Iron, Scanning electron microscopy, 3-d tomographies, Graphite nodules, Growth mechanisms, High resolution, Iron Particles, Micro voids, Radial direction, Cast iron
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hj:diva-41986 (URN)10.1016/j.scriptamat.2018.10.018 (DOI)000450375500015 ()2-s2.0-85055115924 (Scopus ID)JTHMaterialIS (Local ID)JTHMaterialIS (Archive number)JTHMaterialIS (OAI)
Available from: 2018-11-07 Created: 2018-11-07 Last updated: 2019-04-29Bibliographically approved

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