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Distributed Moving Base Driving Simulators: Technology, Performance, and Requirements
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut (VTI), Trafik och trafikant,TRAF, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS, Linköping, Sweden.
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Development of new functionality and smart systems for different types of vehicles is accelerating with the advent of new emerging technologies such as connected and autonomous vehicles. To ensure that these new systems and functions work as intended, flexible and credible evaluation tools are necessary. One example of this type of tool is a driving simulator, which can be used for testing new and existing vehicle concepts and driver support systems. When a driver in a driving simulator operates it in the same way as they would in actual traffic, you get a realistic evaluation of what you want to investigate. Two advantages of a driving simulator are (1.) that you can repeat the same situation several times over a short period of time, and (2.) you can study driver reactions during dangerous situations that could result in serious injuries if they occurred in the real world. An important component of a driving simulator is the vehicle model, i.e., the model that describes how the vehicle reacts to its surroundings and driver inputs. To increase the simulator realism or the computational performance, it is possible to divide the vehicle model into subsystems that run on different computers that are connected in a network. A subsystem can also be replaced with hardware using so-called hardware-in-the-loop simulation, and can then be connected to the rest of the vehicle model using a specified interface. The technique of dividing a model into smaller subsystems running on separate nodes that communicate through a network is called distributed simulation.

This thesis investigates if and how a distributed simulator design might facilitate the maintenance and new development required for a driving simulator to be able to keep up with the increasing pace of vehicle development. For this purpose, three different distributed simulator solutions have been designed, built, and analyzed with the aim of constructing distributed simulators, including external hardware, where the simulation achieves the same degree of realism as with a traditional driving simulator. One of these simulator solutions has been used to create a parameterized powertrain model that can be configured to represent any of a number of different vehicles. Furthermore, the driver's driving task is combined with the powertrain model to monitor deviations. After the powertrain model was created, subsystems from a simulator solution and the powertrain model have been transferred to a Modelica environment. The goal is to create a framework for requirement testing that guarantees sufficient realism, also for a distributed driving simulation.

The results show that the distributed simulators we have developed work well overall with satisfactory performance. It is important to manage the vehicle model and how it is connected to a distributed system. In the distributed driveline simulator setup, the network delays were so small that they could be ignored, i.e., they did not affect the driving experience. However, if one gradually increases the delays, a driver in the distributed simulator will change his/her behavior. The impact of communication latency on a distributed simulator also depends on the simulator application, where different usages of the simulator, i.e., different simulator studies, will have different demands. We believe that many simulator studies could be performed using a distributed setup. One issue is how modifications to the system affect the vehicle model and the desired behavior. This leads to the need for methodology for managing model requirements. In order to detect model deviations in the simulator environment, a monitoring aid has been implemented to help notify test managers when a model behaves strangely or is driven outside of its validated region. Since the availability of distributed laboratory equipment can be limited, the possibility of using Modelica (which is an equation-based and object-oriented programming language) for simulating subsystems is also examined. Implementation of the model in Modelica has also been extended with requirements management, and in this work a framework is proposed for automatically evaluating the model in a tool.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2019. , p. 42
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1984
National Category
Computer Systems Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156537DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-156537ISBN: 9789176850909 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-156537DiVA, id: diva2:1307585
Public defence
2019-06-04, Ada Lovelace, hus B, Campus Valla, Linköping, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-04-30 Created: 2019-04-28 Last updated: 2019-08-22Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Vehicle Powertrain Test Bench Co-Simulation with a Moving Base Simulator Using a Pedal Robot
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vehicle Powertrain Test Bench Co-Simulation with a Moving Base Simulator Using a Pedal Robot
2013 (English)In: SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems, ISSN 1946-4614, E-ISSN 1946-4622, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 169-179Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To evaluate driver perception of a vehicle powertrain a moving base simulator is a well-established technique. We are connecting the moving base simulator Sim III, at the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute with a newly built chassis dynamometer at Vehicular Systems, Linköping University. The purpose of the effort is to enhance fidelity of moving base simulators by letting drivers experience an actual powertrain. At the same time technicians are given a new tool for evaluating powertrain solutions in a controlled environment. As a first step the vehicle model from the chassis dynamometer system has been implemented in Sim III. Interfacing software was developed and an optical fiber covering the physical distance of 500 m between the facilities is used to connect the systems. Further, a pedal robot has been developed that uses two linear actuators pressing the accelerator and brake pedals. The pedal robot uses feedback loops on accelerator position or brake cylinder pressure and is controlled via an UDP interface. Results from running the complete setup showed expected functionality and we are successful in performing a driving mission based on real road topography data. Vehicle acceleration and general driving feel was perceived as realistic by the test subjects while braking still needs improvements. The pedal robot construction enables use of a large set of cars available on the market and except for mounting the brake pressure sensor the time to switch vehicle is approximately 30 minutes.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-92215 (URN)10.4271/2013-01-0410 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-05-08 Created: 2013-05-08 Last updated: 2019-04-28Bibliographically approved
2. A Driving Simulation Platform using Distributed Vehicle Simulators and HLA
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Driving Simulation Platform using Distributed Vehicle Simulators and HLA
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of the DSC 2015 Europe: Driving Simulation Conference & Exhibition / [ed] Heinrich Bülthoff, Andras Kemeny and Paolo Pretto, 2015, p. 123-130Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Modern vehicles are complex systems consisting of an increasing large multitude of components that operate together. While functional verification on individual components is important, it is also important to test components within a driving environment, both from a functional perspective and from a driver perspective. One proven way for testing is vehicle simulators and in this work the main goals have been to increase flexibility and scalability by introducing a distributed driving simulator platform.

As an example, consider a workflow where a developer can go from a desktop simulation to an intermediate driving simulator to a high fidelity driving simulator with Hardware-In-the-Loop systems close to a finished vehicle in an easy way. To accomplish this, a distributed simulation architecture was designed and implemented that divides a driving simulator environment into four major entities with well-defined interfaces, using HLA as the method of communication. This platform was evaluated on two aspects, flexibility/scalability and timing performance. Results show that increased flexibility and scalability was achieved when using a distributed simulation platform. It is also shown that latency was only slightly increased when using HLA.

Keywords
Test, Vehicle, Engine, Performance, Simulator (driving), Computer
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle; 90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 96 Road: Vehicle operating and management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-136153 (URN)9783981309935 (ISBN)
Conference
Driving Simulation Conference 2015. 16-18 september 2015, Tübingen, Germany
Available from: 2016-01-11 Created: 2017-03-31 Last updated: 2019-04-28Bibliographically approved
3. Testing cooperative intelligent transport systems in distributed simulators
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Testing cooperative intelligent transport systems in distributed simulators
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2019 (English)In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 65, p. 206-216Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Simulation is often used as a technique to test and evaluate systems, as it provides a cost-efficient and safe alternative for testing and evaluation. A combination of simulators can be used to create high-fidelity and realistic test scenarios, especially when the systems-under-test are complex. An example of such complex systems is Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS), which include many actors that are connected to each other via wireless communication in order to interact and cooperate. The majority of the actors in the systems are vehicles equipped with wireless communication modules, which can range from fully autonomous vehicles to manually driven vehicles. In order to test and evaluate C-ITS, this paper presents a distributed simulation framework that consists of (a) a moving base driving simulator; (b) a real-time vehicle simulator; and (c) network and traffic simulators. We present our approach for connecting and co-simulating the simulators. We report on limitation and performance that this simulation framework can achieve. Lastly, we discuss potential benefits and feasibility of using the simulation framework for testing of C-ITS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Cooperative intelligent transportation systems, Hardware-in-the-loop, Network simulator, Traffic simulator, Moving base driving simulator
National Category
Vehicle Engineering Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-159824 (URN)10.1016/j.trf.2019.07.020 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-08-22 Created: 2019-08-22 Last updated: 2019-08-22Bibliographically approved
4. Parameterization procedure of a powertrain model for a driving simulator
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Parameterization procedure of a powertrain model for a driving simulator
2016 (English)In: Advances in Transportation Studies, ISSN 1824-5463, Vol. 1, p. 99-112Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The automotive industry is facing a major challenge to reduce environmental impacts. As a consequence, the increasing diversity of powertrain configurations put a demand on testing and evaluation procedures. One of the key tools for this purpose is simulators. In this paper a powertrain model and a procedure for parameterizing it, using chassis dynamometers and a developed pedal robot are presented. The parameterizing procedure uses the on-board diagnostics of the car and does not require any additional invasive sensors.

Thus, the developed powertrain model and parameterization procedure provide a rapid non- invasive way of modelling powertrains of test cars. The parameterizing procedure has been used to model a front wheel drive Golf V with a 1.4L multi-fuel engine and a manual gearbox. The achieved results show a good match between simulation results and test data. The powertrain model has also been tested in real-time in a driving simulator.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aracne editrice, 2016
Keywords
Motor, Test, Characteristics, Simulation
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156538 (URN)10.4399/978885489179109 (DOI)2-s2.0-84982994768 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-04-26 Created: 2019-04-26 Last updated: 2019-05-03Bibliographically approved
5. Vehicle model quality framework for moving base driving simulators, a powertrain model example
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vehicle model quality framework for moving base driving simulators, a powertrain model example
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing, ISSN 1745-6436, E-ISSN 1745-6444, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 93-108Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Moving base driving simulators, with an enclosed human driver, are often used to study driver-vehicle interaction or driver behaviour. Reliable results from such a driving simulator study strongly depend on the perceived realism by the driver in the performed driving task. Assuring sufficient fidelity for a vehicle dynamics model during a driving task is currently to a large degree a manual task. Focus here is to automate this process by employing a framework using collected driving data for detection of model quality for different driving tasks. Using this framework, a powertrain model credibility is predicted and assessed. Results show that chosen powertrain model is accurate enough for a driving scenario on rural roads/motorway, but need improvements for city driving. This was expected, considering the complexity of the vehicle dynamics model, and it was accurately captured by the proposed framework which includes real-time information to the simulator operator.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
InderScience Publishers, 2018
Keywords
vehicle dynamics model, driving simulator, driving task, quality framework, domain of validity, domain of operation, powertrain model
National Category
Computer Systems Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156544 (URN)10.1504/IJVSMT.2018.098330 (DOI)2-s2.0-85063100727 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-04-26 Created: 2019-04-26 Last updated: 2019-05-03Bibliographically approved
6. Models for Distributed Real-Time Simulation in a Vehicle Co-Simulator Setup
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Models for Distributed Real-Time Simulation in a Vehicle Co-Simulator Setup
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Equation-Based Object-Oriented Modeling Languages and Tools; April 19, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK / [ed] Henrik Nilsson, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013, Vol. 84, p. 131-139Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A car model in Modelica has been developed to be used in a new setup for distributed real-time simulation where a moving base car simulator is connected with a real car in a chassis dynamometer via a 500m fiber optic communication link. The new co-simulator set-up can be used in a number of configurations where hardware in the loop can be interchanged with software in the loop. The models presented in this paper are the basic blocks chosen for modeling the system in the context of a distributed real-time simulation; estimating parameters for the powertrain model; the choice of numeric solver; and the interaction with the solver for real-time properties.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013
Series
Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1650-3686, E-ISSN 1650-3740 ; 84
Keywords
Modelica; real-time; distributed; communications link
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118994 (URN)978-91-7519-621-3 (ISBN)978-91-7519-617-6 (ISBN)
Conference
The 5th International Workshop on Equation-Based Object-Oriented Modeling Languages and Tools, April 19, University of Nottingham, Nottingham; UK
Available from: 2015-06-05 Created: 2015-06-05 Last updated: 2019-04-28Bibliographically approved
7. Powertrain Model Assessment for Different Driving Tasks through Requirement Verification
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Powertrain Model Assessment for Different Driving Tasks through Requirement Verification
2018 (English)In: The 9th EUROSIM Congress on Modelica and Simulation, 2018, p. 721-727Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

For assessing whether a system model is a good candidate for a particular simulation scenario or choosing the best system model between multiple design alternatives it is important to be able to evaluate the suitability of the system model. In this paper we present a methodology based on finite state machine requirements verifying system behaviour in a Modelica environment where the intended system model usage is within a moving base driving simulator. A use case illustrate the methodology with a Modelica powertrain system model using replaceable components and measured data from a Golf V. The achieved results show the importance of context of requirements and how users are assisted in finding system model issues. 

Series
Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1650-3686, E-ISSN 1650-3740 ; 142
Keywords
system model assessment, requirement modelling, Modelica, finite state machine, powertrain validations
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156540 (URN)10.3384/ecp17142721 (DOI)978-91-7685-399-3 (ISBN)
Conference
EUROSIM 2016
Available from: 2019-04-26 Created: 2019-04-26 Last updated: 2019-05-13

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