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Hur patienter med HIV upplever bemötandet av sjuksköterskor i vården
University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
2019 (Swedish)Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [sv]

Sammanfattning Bakgrund: Humant immunbristvirus (HIV) är ett retrovirus som lagras i kroppens DNA. HIV är en kronisk sjukdom där viruset skadar immunförsvaret så att den smittade riskerar att drabbas av infektioner och andra sjukdomar. Utan behandling leder HIV till acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), vilket är ett dödligt sjukdomstillstånd. HIV kan smitta genom samlag, till barn under förlossning samt via blod och annan vävnad. HIV smittar inte vid sociala kontakter. Studier har visat att många sjuksköterskor har bristande kunskaper om sjukdomen och dess smittvägar och känner rädsla att bli smittade av patienterna.  Syfte: Att beskriva hur patienter med HIV upplever bemötandet av sjuksköterskor i vården. Metod: En beskrivande litteraturstudie som baserades på femton vetenskapliga artiklar varav tretton var kvalitativa och två var mixad metod. Huvudresultat: Patienter beskrev både positiva och negativa bemötanden av sjuksköterskor. En viktig aspekt som framkom i resultatet var vikten av en god relation och kommunikation mellan sjuksköterska och patient. Detta medförde att patienterna kände trygghet och fick bättre följsamhet till behandlingen. Patienterna beskrev även diskriminerande upplevelser i möten med vårdpersonal vilket resulterade i att de valde att dölja diagnosen, skjuta upp eller avsluta sin behandling. Slutsats: Att många sjuksköterskor hade bristande kunskaper om HIV resulterade i negativa attityder. Patienternas upplevelser av diskriminering medförde sämre följsamhet till behandling och de positiva upplevelserna medförde bättre följsamhet. För att alla sjuksköterskor ska kunna ge ett respektfullt bemötande till patientgruppen anser författarna till föreliggande litteraturstudie att det behövs mer utbildning om HIV och dess smittvägar samt om patienternas upplevelser och följder av detta.

Abstract [en]

Abstract Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that is stored in the body's DNA. HIV is a chronic disease in which the virus damages the immune system so that the infected person is at risk of other infections and diseases. Without treatment HIV leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), which is a fatal condition. HIV can infect through sexual intercourse, to children during childbirth, and through blood and other tissue. HIV does not infect through social contacts. Studies have shown that many nurses prove to have a lack of knowledge of the disease and its pathways and feel fear of being infected by the patients. Purpose: To describe how patients with HIV experience their treatment by nurses in care. Method:  A descriptive literature study based on fifteen scientific articles, of which thirteen were qualitative and two were mixed method. Main Results: Patients described both positive and negative encounters with nurses. An important aspect that emerged from the results was the importance of a good relationship and communication between nurses and patients. This resulted in patients feeling safe and got better adherence to the treatment. The patients also described discriminatory experiences in the meeting with healthcare staff, which resulted in them choosing to hide the diagnosis, postpone or end their treatment. Conclusion: The fact that many nurses lacked knowledge about HIV led to negative attitudes. The patients' experiences of discrimination led to poorer adherence to treatment and the positive experiences led to better compliance. For all nurses to be able to give a respectful treatment to the patient group, the authors consider that more education about HIV and its pathways is needed, as well as about the patients' experiences and consequences of this.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. , p. 29
Keywords [en]
Treatment, HIV-patient, Relation, Nurse
Keywords [sv]
Bemötande, HIV-patienter, Relation, Sjuksköterska
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hig:diva-29451OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hig-29451DiVA, id: diva2:1303484
Subject / course
Nursing
Educational program
Nursing
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2019-04-30 Created: 2019-04-09 Last updated: 2019-04-30Bibliographically approved

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