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Ligands of the Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor: Exploring structure and function of the AT2R ligand C38
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Preparative Medicinal Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6389-5046
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Description
Abstract [en]

The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) control blood-pressure regulation, exerted by the main effector peptide angiotensin II (AngII) binding the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R). While hypertension is the most known disease caused by over-activity in RAAS, several proteins in the system exhibit protective functions.

One of these protective proteins is the GPCR angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R). After decades of research its biological role remain to be fully elucidated, exemplified by the two AT2R ligands currently in clinical trials; agonist C21 for treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and antagonist EMA401 for treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain. Making a minor structural change in C21 shifted the pharmacological profile, generating the regioisomer antagonist C38. The renewed interest in AT2R antagonists as potential drugs to treat neuropathic pain make continued studies of antagonist C38 highly interesting. 

The aim of this thesis was to continue exploring the structure-activity relationship of antagonist C38 by investigating three chemical motifs to identify compounds with better drug-like properties. Developing a new chemical method, transesterification of sulfonyl carbamates, allowed quick modification of one of the motifs. Reducing the length of the sulfonyl carbamate chain significantly increased metabolic stability in liver microsomes without losing affinity for AT2R. Using a model substrate, the transesterification reaction was applied in a microwave heated continuous-flow system.

Adding small substituents to the central phenyl ring generated a second library of ligands with retained affinity, but with no observed increase in metabolic stability. Docking studies with this library and a recently presented crystal structure of AT2R, resulted in a proposed binding mode of C38. Replacing the imidazole head group with bicyclic amides slightly improved affinity. While metabolic stability improved compared to previously published amide analogs, the bicyclic ligands were inferior to C38. Developing an assay based on RAW264.7 macrophages allowed a new evaluation of the functional activity exhibited by C38. In contrast to previous research, C21 and C38 both display agonistic functional activity in the macrophage assay.

In summary, the work presented in this thesis expand the structure-activity relationship of C38 and its pharmacological profile. Two new ligands were identified that could serve as tools in murine models of neuropathic pain.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2019. , p. 74
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Pharmacy, ISSN 1651-6192 ; 269
Keywords [en]
Angiotensin II type 2 receptor, AT2R antagonists, sulfonyl carbamates, bicyclic amides, metabolic stability, functional activity assay, pharmacological profile, medicinal chemistry, structure-activity relationship
National Category
Medicinal Chemistry
Research subject
Medicinal Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-381102ISBN: 978-91-513-0630-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-381102DiVA, id: diva2:1302483
Public defence
2019-05-29, Room A1:107a, BMC, Husargatan 3, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-05-07 Created: 2019-04-04 Last updated: 2019-05-07
List of papers
1. Rapid and straightforward transesterification of sulfonyl carbamates
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rapid and straightforward transesterification of sulfonyl carbamates
2016 (English)In: Tetrahedron Letters, ISSN 0040-4039, E-ISSN 1359-8562, Vol. 57, no 13, p. 1476-1478Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A fast and convenient method for the alkoxy exchange of sulfonyl carbamates by simply heating in a chosen alkyl alcohol is described. No catalysts or additives are required. Microwave heating at 100-120 degrees C for 20-60 min resulted in good to excellent yields (53-93%) of alkyl (arylsulfonyl)carbamates where the alkyl part originates from the alcohol solvent. The developed protocol was applied to the synthesis of an angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) ligand.

Keywords
Sulfonyl carbamates, O-alkyl exchange, Transesterification, Carboxylic acid bioisosteres, AT2R ligand
National Category
Organic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-294300 (URN)10.1016/j.tetlet.2016.02.071 (DOI)000372690800018 ()
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, REGPOT-CT-2013-316149-InnovaBalt
Available from: 2016-05-19 Created: 2016-05-18 Last updated: 2019-04-04Bibliographically approved
2. Microwave Promoted Transcarbamylation Reaction of Sulfonylcarbamates under Continuous-Flow Conditions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microwave Promoted Transcarbamylation Reaction of Sulfonylcarbamates under Continuous-Flow Conditions
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Organic Process Research & Development, ISSN 1083-6160, E-ISSN 1520-586X, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 440-445Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Successful conditions for the transcarbamylation/transesterification reaction of sulfonylcarbamates with alcohols by microwave heating under continuous flow conditions were developed. After optimization of the processes, two series of O-alkylsulfonylcarbamates were obtained in high yields and purities using microwave transparent borosilicate tube reactors. In order to also illustrate the usefulness of the protocol in a medicinal chemistry context, the methodology was used for the synthesis of three angiotensin II type 2 receptor ligands.

National Category
Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy) Pharmaceutical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-282387 (URN)10.1021/acs.oprd.5b00323 (DOI)000370767600033 ()
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, REGPOT-CT-2013-316149-InnovaBalt
Available from: 2016-04-05 Created: 2016-04-05 Last updated: 2019-04-04Bibliographically approved
3. A convenient transesterification method for synthesis of AT2 receptor ligands with improved stability in human liver microsomes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A convenient transesterification method for synthesis of AT2 receptor ligands with improved stability in human liver microsomes
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, ISSN 0960-894X, E-ISSN 1090-2120, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 519-522Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A series of AT2R ligands have been synthesized applying a quick, simple, and safetransesterification-type reaction whereby the sulfonyl carbamate alkyl tail ofthe selective AT2R antagonist C38 was varied. Furthermore, a limited number ofcompounds where acyl sulfonamides and sulfonyl ureas served as carboxylic acidbioisosteres were synthesized and evaluated. By reducing the size of the alkylchain of the sulfonyl carbamates, ligands 7a and 7b were identified withsignificantly improved in vitro metabolic stability in both human and mouse livermicrosomes as compared to C38 while retaining the AT2R binding affinity andAT2R/AT1R selectivity. Eight of the compounds synthesized exhibit an improvedstability in human microsomes as compared to C38.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
AT(2)R antagonists, Angiotensin II type 2 receptor antagonists, Liver microsomes, Sulfonyl carbamates, Transesterification
National Category
Organic Chemistry Medicinal Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-343592 (URN)10.1016/j.bmcl.2017.11.042 (DOI)000424285600053 ()29279275 (PubMedID)
Funder
Science for Life Laboratory - a national resource center for high-throughput molecular bioscience
Available from: 2018-02-28 Created: 2018-02-28 Last updated: 2019-04-04Bibliographically approved
4. A Series of Analogues to the AT2R Prototype Antagonist C38 Allow Fine Tuning of the Previously Reported Antagonist Binding Mode
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Series of Analogues to the AT2R Prototype Antagonist C38 Allow Fine Tuning of the Previously Reported Antagonist Binding Mode
Show others...
2019 (English)In: ChemistryOpen, ISSN 2191-1363, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 114-125Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We here report on our continued studies of ligands binding tothe promising drug target angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R). Two series of compounds were synthesized and investigated. The first series explored the effects of adding small substituents to the phenyl ring of the known selective nonpeptide AT2R antagonist C38, generating small but significant shifts in AT2R affinity. One compound in the first series was equipotent to C38 and showed similar kinetic solubility, and stability in both human and mouse liver microsomes. The second series was comprised of new bicyclic derivatives, amongst which one ligand exhibited a five-fold improved affinity to AT2R ascompared to C38. The majority of the compounds in the second series, including the most potent ligand, were inferior to C38 with regard to stability in both human and mouse microsomes. In contrast to our previously reported findings, ligands with shorter carbamate alkyl chains only demonstrated slightly improved stability in microsomes. Based on data presented herein, a more adequate, tentative model of the binding modes of ligand analogues to the prototype AT2R antagonist C38 is proposed, as deduced from docking redefined by molecular dynamic simulations.

National Category
Organic Chemistry Medicinal Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-377050 (URN)10.1002/open.201800282 (DOI)000457433000017 ()30697513 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC)Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2019-02-13 Created: 2019-02-13 Last updated: 2019-04-04Bibliographically approved
5. Direct Stimulation of Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Reduce Nitric Oxide Production in Lipopolysaccharide Treated RAW264.7 Mouse Macrophages
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Direct Stimulation of Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Reduce Nitric Oxide Production in Lipopolysaccharide Treated RAW264.7 Mouse Macrophages
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keywords
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, AT2R, AT1R, bio-assay, ligand functionality, antagonist, agonist, nitrite, inducible nitric oxide synthase
National Category
Other Biological Topics
Research subject
Medicinal Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-381097 (URN)
Available from: 2019-04-04 Created: 2019-04-04 Last updated: 2019-04-04

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