Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Managing Digital Open Innovation with User Communities: A Study of Community Sensing and Product Openness Capabilities in the Video Game Industry
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Description
Abstract [en]

Digital and open innovation has changed how product innovation occur and how it is managed by firms. Digital technology as an enabler of increasingly distributed innovation processes has in particular impacted firms’ abilities to draw on, and leverage, large numbers of external users and user communities to develop their offerings. In the video game industry, firms have developed and honed capabilities to utilize user communities as sources of information and modular user innovations. Empirical evidence of the performance effects in product innovation as well as conceptualizations of these capabilities is however lacking in extant research. Grounded in a dynamic capability perspective, this dissertation puts forward two capability concepts and tests their effects empirically in the context of the video game industry. First, the concept of a community sensing capability captures the firm’s ability to identify and internalize innovation-conducive information from user communities. This capability entails managing openness in the firm’s innovation processes. Second, the concept of a product openness capability relates to the firm’s ability to create and manage products functioning as platforms for continuous development and coupling of internal and external innovation. This, in turn, involves managing openness in individual products. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, these capabilities are examined at the project level of analysis in relation to the financial performance of products and the speed of development processes. The findings show the capabilities to be indirectly related to the financial performance of products. The application of community sensing capabilities in development of video games increases the amount of information about user needs, demand and product use possessed by the firm, which in turn positively impacts performance. Designing products open to external innovation by users in turn increases the development speed of products, which positively impact the financial performance of products. The two capabilities are also shown to be interlinked as community sensing has a positive impact on product openness. The dissertation contributes at the intersection of open and digital innovation in addition to previous work on sensing capabilities. The work also holds practical relevance by showing the potential of utilizing user communities for digital product innovation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Department of Business Studies , 2019. , p. 91
Series
Doctoral thesis / Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet, ISSN 1103-8454 ; 199
Keywords [en]
User communities, open innovation, dynamic capabilities, video game industry
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Business Studies
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-381041ISBN: 978-91-506-2755-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-381041DiVA, id: diva2:1302190
Public defence
2019-06-13, Hörsal 2, Ekonomikum, Kyrkogårdsgatan 2, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-05-21 Created: 2019-04-03 Last updated: 2019-05-21
List of papers
1. Opening the black box: A review of micro-level research in open innovation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Opening the black box: A review of micro-level research in open innovation
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper reviews extant literature in open innovation (OI) on the micro-level of analysis. Empirical research in OI and previous reviews have predominantly focused on the organizational level and firm-centric perspectives. Examining the micro-level is as an important complement to this established view and aligns with recent shifts in the literature towards the use of additional and multi-level perspectives of OI.  To this end the paper reviews 97 articles on the micro-level published in central innovation journals between 2003 and 2017. The project- and individual-levels are identified as distinct sub-levels on the micro-level where thematic categories are formed to categorize articles, based on findings and subject matters. Results show a significant amount of research on the micro-level but also imbalances in attention between the sub-levels and thematic categories. Later sections of the paper identify gaps in the literature and emphasizes particularly important areas for further development.

Keywords
Open innovation, levels of analysis, micro-level, literature review
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-381033 (URN)
Available from: 2019-04-03 Created: 2019-04-03 Last updated: 2019-04-03
2. Leveraging user communities in digital product innovation: Community sensing and product openness capabilities in the video game industry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Leveraging user communities in digital product innovation: Community sensing and product openness capabilities in the video game industry
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Digitalization and digital innovation bring pervasive changes to product innovation across industries. New opportunities and challenges related to leveraging openness to external virtual crowds and user communities have emerged as a result of the nature and characteristics of digital innovations and digital innovation processes. These changes are most pronounced in digital sectors like the video game industry, which therefore constitute a promising testbed for theorizing about novel innovation management processes. Firms developing video games has developed capabilities to simultaneously utilize openness in innovation processes to sense innovation-conducive information embedded in user communities and openness in products that make them function as platforms for development by the firm and communities. Drawing on a dynamic capability perspective and a qualitative case-study, the paper put forward and conceptualize community sensing and product openness as capabilities capitalizing on, and linking these two forms of openness in product development and innovation.

Keywords
Open innovation, sensing capability, platform capability, user communities, digital innovation, video game industry
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-381034 (URN)
Available from: 2019-04-03 Created: 2019-04-03 Last updated: 2019-04-03
3. Two types of openness to leverage user communities in the video game industry: Community sensing and product openness
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Two types of openness to leverage user communities in the video game industry: Community sensing and product openness
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Video game developing firms have been suggested to be able to simultaneously utilize user communities for information about users’ needs, demand and preferences and as a source of external innovation. Quantitative evidence on these outcomes is scarce however. In this study, two types of openness in product development projects are examined that aim to leverage user communities for product innovation. Based on work on dynamic capabilities, the concept of a community sensing capability captures processes that facilitate inbound flows of use-information through a close proximity to user communities. Grounded in research on utilizing products to enable and support external user innovation, product openness is proposed as a concept capturing the extent products are designed with degrees of openness that allow them to function as platforms for external innovation. To empirically test effects of these on the efficiency and effectiveness of development, cross-sectional data from 151 product development projects in the Swedish video game industry are analyzed. The paper uses structural equation modeling (SEM) with LISREL to test a theoretical model that links community sensing, product openness, development speed and financial performance at the product development project level. Results indicate that product openness is more beneficial to drive development speed and financial performance, positively affecting the former directly and the latter indirectly. Community sensing in turn drive openness in products, but do not have significant effects on speed or performance. Implications for research in OI and on sensing capabilities are outlined.

Keywords
User communities, sensing capability, product openness capability, dynamic capabilities, video game industry, open innovation
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-381036 (URN)
Available from: 2019-04-03 Created: 2019-04-03 Last updated: 2019-04-03
4. Community sensing capabilities in the video game industry: Utilizing information in user communities to impact product performance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Community sensing capabilities in the video game industry: Utilizing information in user communities to impact product performance
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Firms in the video game industry have a tradition of drawing on user communities for information about user needs, demand and product use that is conducive to product innovation. This study investigates the outcomes of a community sensing capability that allows video game firms to utilize externally located information about user needs, demand and product use to drive product innovation. Building on previous research on sensing capabilities and innovation literatures, the capability is defined as the ability to identify and internalize innovation-conducive information from user communities. The paper hypothesizes that the community sensing capability used in development projects increases levels of information about user needs, demand and product use. This, in turn, is predicted to positively affect the financial performance of products. To test these hypotheses, cross-sectional data from 151 development projects in the video game industry are analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) with LISREL software. Empirical results provide support for the theoretical argument and demonstrate indirect effects on performance. The model further identifies an inconsistent mediation effect between community sensing and financial performance, as without increased levels of information about users as an outcome, sensing processes have a negative impact on performance. Implications for and contributions to research on sensing capabilities are formulated in addition to extant research on user communities in open innovation contexts. Insights for management based on the findings are also outlined.

Keywords
User communities, sensing capability, dynamic capabilities, video game industry, open innovation
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-381038 (URN)
Available from: 2019-04-03 Created: 2019-04-03 Last updated: 2019-04-03

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(1199 kB)145 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 1199 kBChecksum SHA-512
904cdb6105b0d9e694d05325fc393a917342936021cd449dc50911b08d5d40f48b490879d10bd8c0bef25e09121c9e6747bdc9177fb0ca111891978c72433274
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Ek, Peter
By organisation
Department of Business Studies
Business Administration

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 145 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 388 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf