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Impact of Wind Veer and the Coriolis Force for an Idealized Farm to Farm Interaction Case
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. (Wind Energy Campus Gotland)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Environment and Climate Change Canada. (Wind Energy Campus Gotland)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. (Wind Energy Campus Gotland)
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. (Wind Energy Campus Gotland)
2019 (English)In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, no 5, article id 922Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The impact of the Coriolis force on the long distance wake behind wind farms is investigated using Large Eddy Simulations (LES) combined with a Forced Boundary Layer (FBL) technique. When using the FBL technique any mean wind shear and turbulent fluctuations can be added with body forces. The wind shear can also include the mean wind veer due to the Coriolis force. The variation of the Coriolis force due to local deviations from the mean profile, e.g., from wakes, is not taken into account in the FBL. This can be corrected for with an extra source term in the equations, hereon defined as the Coriolis correction. For a row of 4 turbines it is shown that the inclusion of the wind veer turns the wake to the right, while including the Coriolis correction turns it to the left. When including both wind veer and Coriolis correction the impact of wind veer dominates. For an idealized farm to farm interaction case, two farms of 4 * 4 turbines with 6 km in between, it can be seen that when including wind veer and the Coriolis correction a approximately 3% increase in the relative production for a full wake direction can be seen and only a slightly smaller increase can be seen when including only wind veer. The results indicate that FBL can be used for studies of long distance wakes without including a Coriolis correction but efforts need to be taken to use a wind shear with a correct mean wind veer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. Vol. 9, no 5, article id 922
Keywords [en]
long distance wake, farm to farm interaction, wind farm cluster, large Eddy simulations, LES, actuator disc, ACD, forced boundary layer, FBL, coriolis, wind veer
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-379116DOI: 10.3390/app9050922ISI: 000462504400109OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-379116DiVA, id: diva2:1295552
Funder
Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC)Available from: 2019-03-12 Created: 2019-03-12 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Numerical Computations of Wakes Behind Wind Farms: A tool to study Farm to Farm interaction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical Computations of Wakes Behind Wind Farms: A tool to study Farm to Farm interaction
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

More and larger wind farms are planned offshore. As the most suitable sites to build are limited these new wind farms will be constructed near to each other in so called wind farm clusters. Behind the wind turbines in these farms there is a disrupted flow of air called a wake that is characterized by reduced wind speed and increased turbulence. These individual turbine wakes combine to form a farm wake that can travel long distances. In wind farm clusters farm to farm interaction will occur, i.e. the long distance wake from one wind farm will impact the wind conditions for other farms in the surrounding area.

This thesis contains numerical studies of these long distance wakes. In these studies Large Eddy Simulations (LES) using an Actuator Disc method (ACD) are used. A prescribed boundary layer is used where the wind shear is introduced using body forces. The turbulence, based on the Mann model, is introduced as fluctuating body forces upstream of the farm. A neutral atmosphere is assumed. The applied method has earlier been used for studies of wake effects inside farms but not for the longer distances needed for the study of farm to farm interaction. Parameter studies are setup to analyze how to best use the model for the study of long distance wakes with regards to 1) numerical and physical parameters in the model, 2) the extension of the domain and turbulence as well as the characteristics of the flow far downstream and 3) the downstream development of turbulence with different combinations of wind shear and turbulence level.

Using an initial simulation setup a wind farm was studied and preliminary results were obtained. These results were subsequently improved upon by applying the simulation setup adjustments indicated in the parameter studies. A comparison with a mesoscale model was also done. The mesoscale model was shown to be relevant for studies of long distance wakes in another study comparing LES and WRF. Finally an idealized farm to farm interaction case was studied with focus on the impact of including the Coriolis force in the simulations.

Combining LES with a mesoscale model is of interest to study further.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2019. p. 73
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1789
Keywords
Wind turbine, Wind power, Wind farm, Wakes, Long distance wakes, Farm-Farm, Farm to farm interaction, Wind farm cluster, Large Eddy simulations, LES, Actuator disc method, ACD, CFD, Ellipsys3D, Prescribed boundary layer, PBL, Forced boundary layer, FBL
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Meteorology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-379125 (URN)978-91-513-0616-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-06-13, E22, Uppsala universitet - Campus Gotland, Cramérgatan 3, Visby, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-04-26 Created: 2019-03-18 Last updated: 2019-06-17

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