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Optical Interconnects for Next Generation Data Centers: Architecture Design and Resource Allocation
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Communication Systems, CoS, Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab). (Optical Network Laboratory (ON Lab))
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The current data center architectures based on blade servers and elec- tronic packet switches face several problems, e.g., limited resource utilization, high power consumption and cost, when handling the rapidly growing of data traffic. Optical networks offering ultra-high capacity and requiring low energy consumption are considered as a good option to address these problems. This thesis presents new data center architectures based on optical interconnects and transmissions, and evaluates performance by extensive simulations.

The first main contribution of the thesis is to introduce a passive optical top-of-rack interconnect (POTORI) architecture. The data plane of POTORI mainly consists of passive components to interconnect the servers within the rack. Using the passive components makes it possible to significantly reduce power consumption while achieving high reliability in a cost-efficient way. In addition, the POTORI’s control plane is based on a centralized controller, which is responsible for coordinating the communications among the servers in the rack. A cycle-based medium access control (MAC) protocol and a dy- namic bandwidth allocation (DBA) algorithm are designed for the POTORI to efficiently manage the exchange of control messages and the data transmis- sion inside the rack. Simulation results show that under realistic DC traffic scenarios, the POTORI with the proposed DBA algorithm is able to achieve an average packet delay below 10 μs with the use of fast tunable optical transceivers.

The second main contribution of the thesis is to investigate rack-scale disaggregated data center (DDC) architecture for improving resource utiliza- tion. In contrast to the traditional DC with blade servers that integrate various types of resources (e.g., central processing unit (CPU), memory) in a chassis, the rack-scale DDC contains fully decoupled resources held on differ- ent blades, referred to as resource blades. The resource blades are required to be interconnected within the rack by an ultra-high bandwidth optical in- terconnect through the optical interfaces (OIs). A resource allocation (RA) algorithm is proposed to efficiently schedule the resources in the DDC for virtual machine requests. Results show that with sufficient bandwidth on the OIs, the rack-scale DDC with the proposed RA algorithm can achieve 20% higher resource utilization and make 30% more revenue comparing to the traditional DC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2019. , p. 61
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2019:18
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244840ISBN: 978-91-7873-108-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-244840DiVA, id: diva2:1292617
Public defence
2019-03-29, Ka-Sal B (Sal Peter Weissglas), Electrum, Kungl Tekniska högskolan, Kistagången 16, Kista, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20190301

Available from: 2019-03-01 Created: 2019-02-28 Last updated: 2019-03-04Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Reliable and Cost Efficient Passive Optical Interconnects for Data Centers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reliable and Cost Efficient Passive Optical Interconnects for Data Centers
2015 (English)In: IEEE Communications Letters, ISSN 1089-7798, E-ISSN 1558-2558, Vol. 19, no 11, p. 1913-1916Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To address the sustainability, scalability, and reliability problems that data centers are currently facing, we propose three passive optical interconnect (POI) architectures on top of the rack. The evaluation results show that all three architectures offer high reliability performance (connection availability for intra-rack interconnections higher than 99.999%) in a cost-efficient way.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Communications Society, 2015
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-184493 (URN)10.1109/LCOMM.2015.2478474 (DOI)000365028900014 ()2-s2.0-84947602238 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160525

Available from: 2016-04-01 Created: 2016-04-01 Last updated: 2019-03-01Bibliographically approved
2. Centralized Control Plane for Passive Optical Top-of-Rack Interconnects in Data Centers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Centralized Control Plane for Passive Optical Top-of-Rack Interconnects in Data Centers
2016 (English)In: 2016 IEEE Global Communications Conference, GLOBECOM 2016 - Proceedings, IEEE conference proceedings, 2016, article id 7841655Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

To efficiently handle the fast growing traffic inside data centers, several optical interconnect architectures have been recently proposed. However, most of them are targeting the aggregation and core tiers of the data center network, while relying on conventional electronic top-of-rack (ToR) switches to connect the servers inside the rack. The electronic ToR switches pose serious limitations on the data center network in terms of high cost and power consumption. To address this problem, we recently proposed a passive optical top-of-rack interconnect architecture, where we focused on the data plane design utilizing simple passive optical components to interconnect the servers within the rack. However, an appropriate control plane tailored for this architecture is needed to be able to analyze the network performance, e.g., packet delay, drop rate, etc., and also obtain a holistic network design for our passive optical top-of-rack interconnect, which we refer to as POTORI. To fill in this gap, this paper proposes the POTORI control plane design which relies on a centralized rack controller to manage the communications inside the rack. To achieve high network performance in POTORI, we also propose a centralized medium access control (MAC) protocol and two dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) algorithms, namely Largest First (LF) and Largest First with Void Filling (LFVF). Simulation results show that POTORI achieves packet delays in the order of microseconds and negligible packet loss probability under realistic data center traffic scenarios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2016
Series
IEEE Global Communications Conference, ISSN 2334-0983
Keywords
Data center networks, Dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA), Medium access control (MAC), Optical interconnect architectures
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-206391 (URN)10.1109/GLOCOM.2016.7841655 (DOI)000401963301011 ()2-s2.0-85015439339 (Scopus ID)978-1-5090-1328-9 (ISBN)
Conference
59th IEEE Global Communications Conference, GLOBECOM 2016, Washington, United States, 4 December 2016 through 8 December 2016
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20170503

Available from: 2017-05-02 Created: 2017-05-02 Last updated: 2019-02-28Bibliographically approved
3. POTORI: A Passive Optical Top-of-Rack Interconnect Architecture for Data Centers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>POTORI: A Passive Optical Top-of-Rack Interconnect Architecture for Data Centers
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, ISSN 1943-0620, E-ISSN 1943-0639, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 401-411Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several optical interconnect architectures inside data centers (DCs) have been proposed to efficiently handle the rapidly growing traffic demand. However, not many works have tackled the interconnects at top-of-rack (ToR), which have a large impact on the performance of the data center networks (DCNs) and can introduce serious scalability limitations due to their high cost and power consumption. In this paper, we propose a passive optical ToR interconnect architecture (POTORI) to replace the conventional electronic packet switch (EPS) in the access tier of DCNs. In the data plane, POTORI relies on a passive optical coupler to interconnect the servers within the rack and interfaces toward the aggregation/core tiers. The POTORI control plane is based on a centralized rack controller responsible for managing the communications among the servers in the rack. We propose a cycle-based medium access control (MAC) protocol to efficiently manage the exchange of control messages and the data transmission inside the rack. We also introduce and evaluate a dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm for POTORI, namely largest first (LF). Extensive simulation results show that, with the use of fast tunable optical transceivers, POTORI and the proposed LF strategy are able to achieve an average packet delay below 10 μs under realistic DC traffic scenarios, outperforming conventional EPSs. On the other hand, with slower tunable optical transceivers, a careful configuration of the network parameters (e.g., maximum cycle time of the MAC protocol) is necessary to obtain a good network performance in terms of the average packet delay.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
Keywords
Data center networks, Dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA), Medium access control (MAC), Optical interconnect architectures
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-206392 (URN)10.1364/JOCN.9.000401 (DOI)000401412300007 ()2-s2.0-85019551371 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research Swedish Research Council
Note

QC 20170613

Available from: 2017-05-02 Created: 2017-05-02 Last updated: 2019-03-01Bibliographically approved
4. Resource Disaggregation versus Integrated Servers in Data Centers: Impact of Internal Transmission Capacity Limitation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resource Disaggregation versus Integrated Servers in Data Centers: Impact of Internal Transmission Capacity Limitation
2018 (English)In: Proceedings 2018 European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper shows that internal transmission capacity limitations in disaggregated data centers cannot be ignored. Insufficient capacity may reduce the inherent benefits of resource disaggregation in terms of resource utilization compared to the integrated solutions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244838 (URN)10.1109/ECOC.2018.8535214 (DOI)
Conference
ECOC 2018, 44th EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON OPTICAL COMMUNICATION, Roma, Italy, September 23-27, 2018
Note

QC 20190301

Available from: 2019-02-28 Created: 2019-02-28 Last updated: 2019-06-07Bibliographically approved
5. Disaggregated Data Centers: Challenges and Tradeoffs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Disaggregated Data Centers: Challenges and Tradeoffs
Show others...
2019 (English)In: IEEE Communications Magazine, ISSN 0163-6804, E-ISSN 1558-1896Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Resource utilization of modern data centers is significantly limited by the mismatch between the diversity of the resources required by running applications and the fixed amount of hardwired resources (e.g., number of central processing unit CPU cores, size of memory) in the server blades. In this regard, the concept of function disaggregation is introduced, where the integrated server blades containing all types of resources are replaced by the resource blades including only one specific function. Therefore, disaggregated data centers can offer high flexibility for resource allocation and hence their resource utilization can be largely improved. In addition, introducing function disaggregation simplifies the system upgrade, allowing for a quick adoption of new generation components in data centers. However, the communication between different resources faces severe problems in terms of latency and transmission bandwidth required. In particular,the CPU-memory interconnects in fully disaggregated data centers require ultra-low latency and ultra-high transmission bandwidth in order to prevent performance degradation for running applications. Optical fiber communication is a promising technique to offer high capacity and low latency, but it is still very challenging for the state-of-the-art optical transmission technologies to meet the requirements of the fully disaggregated data centers. In this paper, different levels of function disaggregation are investigated. For the fully disaggregated data centers, two architectural options are presented, where optical interconnects are necessary for CPU-memory communications. We review the state-of-the-art optical transmission technologies and carry out performance assessment when employing them to support function disaggregation in data centers. The results reveal that function disaggregation does improve the efficiency of resource usage in the data centers, although the bandwidth provided by the state-of-the-art optical transmission technologies is not always sufficient for the fully disaggregated data centers. It calls for research in optical transmission to fully utilize the advantages of function disaggregation in data centers.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244839 (URN)
Note

QC 20190301

Available from: 2019-02-28 Created: 2019-02-28 Last updated: 2019-03-01Bibliographically approved

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