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Adaptive control of the filler wire rate during laser beam welding of squared butt joints with varying gap width
University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems. (PTW)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8771-7404
University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems. (PTW)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5734-294X
University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Production Systems. (PTW)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5608-8636
2019 (English)In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Adding filler wire control to autogenous laser beam welding of squared butt joints offers a means to widen up the tight fit-up tolerances associated with this process. When the gap width varies, the filler wire rate should be controlled to assure a constant geometry of the resulting weld seam. A dual mode sensing system is proposed to estimate the joint gap width and thereby control the filler wire rate. A vision camera integrated into the welding tool together with external LED illumination and a laser line projection enables two sensing modes, one surface feature extraction mode and one laser triangulation-based mode. Data from the both modes are fused in a Kalman filter, and comparisons show that the fusing of the data gives more robust estimation than estimates from each single mode. A feed-forward control system adaptively adjusts the filler wire rate based on the estimations ofthe joint gap width in front of the keyhole. The focus is on keeping the data processing simple and affordable, and the real-time performance of the sensor and control system has been evaluated by welding experiments. It is shown that the proposed system can be used for on-line control of the filler wire rate to achieve a constant weld geometry during varying joint gap widths

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019. p. 1-10
Keywords [en]
Laser beam welding, Filler wire, Squared butt joints, Varying gap width, Feature extraction, Laser triangulation, Sensor fusion
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13640DOI: 10.1007/s00170-019-03325-wOAI: oai:DiVA.org:hv-13640DiVA, id: diva2:1292524
Available from: 2019-02-28 Created: 2019-02-28 Last updated: 2019-03-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Monitoring and control of laser beam butt joint welding
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Monitoring and control of laser beam butt joint welding
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Laser beam welding is one important technology in automated production. It has several advantages, such as the ability to produce deep and narrow welds giving limited heat induced deformations. The laser beam welding process is however sensitive to how the high power laser is positioned with regards to the joint position. Therefore, to achieve a seam without defects, the joint position needs to be measured and controlled. The laser beam welding process is also sensitive to variations in joint gap width. Costly joint preparations are required to achieve the tight fit up tolerances needed to produce high quality welds. However, the demand on joint preparation can be somewhat relaxed by allowing the joint gap width to vary and controlling the process. One way of doing this is to control the filler wire feed rate based on joint gap width measurements.This thesis presents experimental studies on how to track closed-square-butt joints and also how to handle varying square-butt joints in laser beam welding.

Different optical sensor systems are evaluated for their performance to estimate the joint position and the joint gap width. The possibility of detecting beam offsets is studied by using sensors systems based on a photo diode and on a spectrometer. Estimations of the joint position, to be used for closed loop position control, is studied by using a camera and external LED illumination. Variations in joint gap width is evaluated using a spectrometer, a camera and a laser profile sensor. Experimental results show that both the photodiode system and the spectometer system is able to detect beam offsets and that the beam position can be estimated with sufficient accuracy when welding closed-square-butt joints. It is also shown that the joint gap width can be estimated by the selected sensor systems and that the estimates can be used for controlling the wire feed rate in order to obtain a constant weld geometry and avoid defects related to the gap width.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trollhättan: University West, 2019. p. 84
Series
PhD Thesis: University West ; 27
Keywords
Laser beam welding, Optical sensors, Joint tracking, Varying gap
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Production Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-13650 (URN)978-91-88847-23-2 (ISBN)978-91-88847-22-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-02-05, F104, Albertsalen, Trollhättan, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-03-15 Created: 2019-02-28

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