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Spatial variation in the atmospheric deposition of perfluoroalkyl acids: source elucidation through analysis of isomer patterns
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6194-1491
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0645-3265
Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7035-8660
Number of Authors: 42018 (English)In: Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, ISSN 2050-7887, E-ISSN 2050-7895, Vol. 20, no 7, p. 997-1006Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To evaluate the relevance of different proposed sources of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) to air, their isomer patterns were analyzed in deposition samples collected from five geographical locations: two urban sites in China (>360 km from known operational fluorochemical manufacturing facilities), one remote marine site in the Azores archipelago and two Swedish sites representing urban and background conditions. Despite variable contributions from linear perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in the samples, the pattern of branched PFOA isomers was similar to those of technical standards manufactured using electrochemical fluorination (ECF). This indicates that atmospheric fate processes have little influence on the isomer profiles of PFOA and that the relative contribution of PFOA manufactured using ECF (typically 20-26% branched isomers) and telomerization (typically one single linear isomer) can be determined in atmospheric deposition samples by analyzing the proportions of branched and linear isomers. In Chinese samples, branched isomers contributed 15-25% to the total loading of PFOA, indicating that the samples were dominated by ECF PFOA. Samples in the Azores had 8-10% contribution from branched PFOA isomers, indicating an approximately equal influence of ECF and telomer sources. Only three of the samples collected in Sweden displayed a quantifiable contribution from branched PFOA isomers (8-13% of overall PFOA loading in the samples). One branched PFNA isomer was observed in samples from the marine sites. Direct manufacturing discharges, transport of sea spray aerosols and degradation of precursors are all suggested to be contributing sources, albeit to different extents, to PFAAs in air at the different geographical locations where precipitation was sampled.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. Vol. 20, no 7, p. 997-1006
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Chemical Sciences Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:su:diva-159136DOI: 10.1039/c8em00102bISI: 000439279400001PubMedID: 29869654OAI: oai:DiVA.org:su-159136DiVA, id: diva2:1242930
Available from: 2018-08-29 Created: 2018-08-29 Last updated: 2020-02-06Bibliographically approved

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Johansson, Jana H.Shi, YaliSalter, MatthewCousins, Ian T.
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