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Structures for supporting BIM-based automation in the design process
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4843-8936
2018 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Strukturer för stödjande av BIM-baserad automation i designprocessen (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

During recent decades the advent of IT in the construction industry has prompted a gradual shift from manual paper-based processes to computer-aided design and production. In this shift there has been an increasing interest in the application of building information modelling (BIM) for the overall management of information throughout the lifecycle of a building. By implementing BIM and automating the workflows within, decreased time spent on engineering tasks and an increased focus on building performance could be achieved during the design process. Due to the complexity of the design process it is rare that a single BIM application can manage all the activities that are present. This puts pressure on the coupling of multiple applications, tools, and information. The challenges that this poses on interoperability and information exchange has received a wealth of attention in research however it is still argued that many of these operations require manual input. Automating parts of a BIM-based workflow is facilitated by the possibilities that exists for exchanging information and controlling the flow of information. This implies that not only do we need to understand this on a data level, but also that we understand how the system and information structures can be managed to enable this.

The purpose of this thesis was to investigate how structures could be applied on both a system and information level to support automation within a BIM-based design process, and more specifically how these structures could be used to overcome some of the challenges of information exchange. Three studies were conducted to explore different methods and their potential in achieving automated workflows. The findings of these studies were then analysed against a theoretical framework based on structures of systems and information. The results show that choosing a distributed method for structuring systems allows for the coupling of multiple software, tools, and information without the need for a single shared schema. The critical component of the distributed system structure is a middleware which is responsible for controlling the flow of information. It is the middleware that when implemented allows for the management of multiple sources of information, each with their corresponding schemas. The results also showed that information which travels between the components of the distributed system can be structured according to their relationships to provide the foundation for a mapping. This structure enables the decomposition of information that can be used to transfer information only relevant to the current activity. When applied this aids to resolve the coupling of information at each activity in an automated BIM-based workflow.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2018.
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
Keywords [en]
BIM, Automation, Distributed System, Information, Structures
National Category
Construction Management
Research subject
Construction Management and Building Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70412ISBN: 978-91-7790-184-6 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7790-185-3 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-70412DiVA, id: diva2:1239040
Presentation
2018-10-10, F231, Luleå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-08-16 Created: 2018-08-15 Last updated: 2018-09-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. An Integrated BIM-based framework for the optimization of the trade-off between embodied and operational energy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Integrated BIM-based framework for the optimization of the trade-off between embodied and operational energy
2018 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 158, p. 1189-1205Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Design choices with a unilateral focus on the reduction of operational energy for developing energy-efficient and near-zero energy building practices can increase the impact of the embodied energy, as there is a trade-off between embodied and operational energy. Multi-objective optimization approaches enable exploration of the trade-off problems to find sustainable design strategies, but there has been limited research in applying it to find optimal design solution(s) considering the embodied versus operational energy trade-off. Additionally, integration of this approach into a Building Information Modeling (BIM) for facilitating set up of the building model toward optimization and utilizing the benefits of BIM for sharing information in an interoperable and reusable manner, has been mostly overlooked. To address these issues, this paper presents a framework that supports the making of appropriate design decisions by solving the trade-off problem between embodied and operational energy through the integration of a multi-objective optimization approach with a BIM-driven design process. The applicability of the framework was tested by developing a prototype and using it in a case study of a low energy dwelling in Sweden, which showed the potential for reducing the building’s Life Cycle Energy (LCE) use by accounting for the embodied versus operational energy trade-off to find optimal design solution(s). In general, the results of the case study demonstrated that in a low energy dwelling, depending on the site location, small reductions in operational energy (i.e. 140 GJ) could result in larger increases in embodied energy (i.e. 340 GJ) and the optimization process could yield up to 108 GJ of LCE savings relative to the initial design. This energy saving was equivalent to up to 8 years of the initial design’s operational energy use for the dwelling, excluding household electricity use.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Construction Management
Research subject
Construction Engineering and Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66697 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2017.11.017 (DOI)000428010300020 ()2-s2.0-85034624206 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 2;2017-12-05 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-11-22 Created: 2017-11-22 Last updated: 2018-10-23Bibliographically approved
2. Structuring information from BIM: A glance at bills of materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structuring information from BIM: A glance at bills of materials
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 35th ISARC, Berlin, Germany, IAARC Publications , 2018, Vol. 35, p. 362-368Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Industrialized house-builders are moving towards an enhanced production where management of information along the value chain is critical in order to deliver housing projects on time and with the desired quality. Today digital tools and systems are used in both design and production to produce, deliver and instruct actors throughout the phases of aproject. However, the information usually exists in different islands and manual transfers are required tokeep the flow of information between IT-systems and individuals continuous. A key to improving the ability for the members in different stages of a project to work with the same information is to facilitate different views. One of the building blocks for creating bridges between the islands of information is to introduce bills of materials which can be used to organize information for different purposes. Uniting the use of building information modeling (BIM) withbills of materials (BOM) is therefore our focus in this paper. This is done in the context of industrialized house-building and the facets which it brings to the subject. The aim of this paper is to present an early endeavor into a BOM based approach for structuring information from BIM models. A demonstration tool was developed, and together with application in a case project from an industrialized house-builder, the generation of BOMs from BIM data is illustrated and discussed. The findings illustrates that we can apply different structures to the information located in our BIM models and that we can produce a BOM perspective on our products. Also, it is highlighted that we still need further studies to better understand how application of BOMs in the context of industrialized house-building is realized.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IAARC Publications, 2018
Keywords
Bills of Materials, BIM, Industrialized, House Building
National Category
Building Technologies Construction Management
Research subject
Construction Management and Building Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70333 (URN)10.22260/ISARC2018/0052 (DOI)2-s2.0-85053917327 (Scopus ID)
Conference
35th International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction (ISARC 2018), Berlin, July 20-25 2018
Available from: 2018-08-13 Created: 2018-08-13 Last updated: 2018-10-23Bibliographically approved
3. Approach for Automated Planning Using 5D-BIM
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Approach for Automated Planning Using 5D-BIM
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the 33rd CIB W78 Conference 2016, Oct. 31st-Nov. 2nd 2016, Brisbane, Australia, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Early planning decisions are usually dependent on time-demanding, manually produced cost estimations and schedules. There is a trend in the construction industry to use 5D-BIM to speed up these processes and automated approaches can be used to further improve effectiveness. This research aims to investigate how to create an automated 5D-BIM planning process when using industrialized building systems. We propose an approach that combines a BIM manual with predefined databases based on the building system and its properties. A case study at one of Scandinavia’s largest construction and property development companies was conducted where the presented approach was tested. The findings show that planning using 5D-BIM is possible to partially automate through our approach but that there are challenges for a fully automated process in the standardization required and assuring that the quality of data in each step is adequate.

Keywords
5D-BIM, automation, industrialized house-building, building system
National Category
Construction Management
Research subject
Construction Engineering and Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60851 (URN)
Conference
33rd CIB W78 Conference 2016, Oct. 31st-Nov. 2nd 2016, Brisbane, Australia
Available from: 2016-12-01 Created: 2016-12-01 Last updated: 2018-08-15Bibliographically approved

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