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Possibilities for CO2 emission reduction using biomass in European integrated steel plants
University of Leeds, UK ; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria.
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria.
RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea MEFOS. Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria ; Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
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2018 (English)In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 115, p. 231-243Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Iron and steel plants producing steel via the blast furnace-basic oxygen furnace (BF-BOF) route constitute among the largest single point CO2 emitters within the European Union (EU). As the iron ore reduction process in the blast furnace is fully dependent on carbon mainly supplied by coal and coke, bioenergy is the only renewable that presents a possibility for their partial substitution. Using the BeWhere model, this work optimised the mobilization and use of biomass resources within the EU in order to identify the opportunities that bioenergy can bring to the 30 operating BF-BOF plants. The results demonstrate competition for the available biomass resources within existing industries and economically unappealing prices of the bio-based fuels. A carbon dioxide price of 60 € t−1 is required to substitute 20% of the CO2 emissions from the fossil fuels use, while a price of 140 € t−1 is needed to reach the maximum potential of 42%. The possibility to use organic wastes to produce hydrochar would not enhance the maximum emission reduction potential, but it would broaden the available feedstock during the low levels of substitution. The scope for bioenergy integration is different for each plant and so consideration of its deployment should be treated individually. Therefore, the EU-ETS (Emission Trading System) may not be the best policy tool for bioenergy as an emission reduction strategy for the iron and steel industry, as it does not differentiate between the opportunities across the different steel plants and creates additional costs for the already struggling European steel industry. © 2018 The Authors

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. Vol. 115, p. 231-243
Keywords [en]
BF-BOF, Bioenergy, Carbon price, Iron and steel, Low-carbon steelmaking, Optimisation, Basic oxygen converters, Biomass, Blast furnaces, Carbon dioxide, Competition, Costs, Economic geology, Emission control, Fossil fuels, Gas emissions, International law, Iron and steel industry, Iron ore reduction, Iron ores, Low carbon steel, Ore reduction, Steelmaking, Steelmaking furnaces, Bio-energy, Low carbon, Optimisations, Iron and steel plants, biochar, carbon emission, European Union, operations technology, optimization, power plant, price dynamics
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ri:diva-34503DOI: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2018.04.021Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85047086828OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ri-34503DiVA, id: diva2:1237574
Available from: 2018-08-09 Created: 2018-08-09 Last updated: 2018-08-09

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