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Utilizing a Structural Mechanics Approach to Assess the Primary Effects of Injury Loads Onto the Axon and Its Components
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Neuronic Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6306-507X
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Neuronic Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0125-0784
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Neurology, ISSN 1664-2295, E-ISSN 1664-2295, Vol. 9, no 643, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) occurs as a result of the transmission of rapid dynamic loads from the head to the brain and specifically to its neurons. Despite being one of the most common and most deleterious types of traumatic brain injury (TBI), the inherent cell injury mechanism is yet to be understood. Experimental observations have led to the formulation of different hypotheses, such as mechanoporation of the axolemma and microtubules (MTs) breakage. With the goal of singling out the mechanical aspect of DAI and to resolve the ambiguity behind its injury mechanism, a composite finite element (FE) model of a representative volume of an axon was developed. Once calibrated and validated against published experimental data, the axonal model was used to simulate injury scenarios. The resulting strain distributions along its components were then studied in dependence of strain rate and of typical modeling choices such as the applied MT constraints and tau proteins failure. Results show that oversimplifying the MT bundle kinematic entails a systematic attenuation (cf = 2.33) of the computed maximum MT strain. Nevertheless, altogether, results support the hypothesis of axolemma mechanoporation as a cell-injury trigger. Moreover, for the first time the interconnection between the axolemma and the MT bundle is shown to play a role in damage localization. The proposed FE axonal model is a valuable tool to understand the axonal injury mechanism from a mechanical perspective and could be used in turn for the definition of well-informed injury criteria at the tissue and organ level.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. Vol. 9, no 643, p. 1-12
Keywords [en]
axon axolemma microtubules
National Category
Other Medical Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Mechanics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-232859DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2018.00643OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-232859DiVA, id: diva2:1236783
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 642662
Note

QC 20180806

Available from: 2018-08-06 Created: 2018-08-06 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved

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