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Integration of Membrane Distillation and Solar Thermal Systems for Coproduction of Purified Water and Heat
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the Middle East and North Africa region fresh water resources are very scarce and theexisting sources are depleting rapidly. Desalination is the method to fulfill increasing waterdemand, and people depend mostly upon bottled water for drinking purposes. Bottledwater is resource and energy demanding, hence there is a need for supplying drinkablewater in a sustainable way. The main objective of this research is to develop solutions forproviding potable water to urban communities through integrating membrane distillationwater purification units with solar driven hot water installations. A single-cassette Air GapMembrane Distillation (AGMD) unit was tested on laboratory scale to investigate theinfluence of various operating parameters on the distillate production. Particular attentionwas given for identifying process conditions relevant to the design of solar energyintegrated systems. In parallel, a simplified empirical model using response surfacemethods was developed and validated against bench scale experimental results. Thedeveloped model for performance indicators was later employed in dynamic simulations ofa solar thermal integrated membrane distillation system. A pilot plant was designed andinstalled at RAK Research and Innovation Center in UAE. Experimental investigations wereconducted on this integrated system for co-production of pure water (around 15-25 l/day)along with hot water production equivalent to the needs of a family of five. A dynamicsimulation model was developed in TRNSYS to analyze optimum operating conditions ofthe system. Economic analysis showed an impressive payback period and savings for theintegrated system as compared with standalone counterparts. A second pilot facility using alarger multi-cassette AGMD module and absorption cooler was designed and installed.Performance of this solar co-production system for heat, cooling, and pure water is analyzedfor various integration modes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. , p. 100
Series
TRITA-KRV ; 17-10
Keywords [en]
Solar Membrane Distillation, polygeneration, TRNSYS, Integrated systems
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-232854ISBN: 978-91-7729-581-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-232854DiVA, id: diva2:1236756
Public defence
2017-12-12, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20180806

Available from: 2018-08-06 Created: 2018-08-05 Last updated: 2018-08-06Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Experimental modeling of an air-gap membrane distillation module and simulation of a solar thermal integrated system for water purification
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental modeling of an air-gap membrane distillation module and simulation of a solar thermal integrated system for water purification
2017 (English)In: Desalination and Water Treatment, ISSN 1944-3994, E-ISSN 1944-3986, Vol. 84, p. 123-134Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Membrane distillation is a novel process that could be adapted effectively for many water purification applications. In recent years, several bench, pilot and commercial scale membrane distillation systems with production capacities ranging from 20 L/d to 50 m(3)/d were developed and tested. In this work, a single cassette air-gap membrane distillation (AGMD) module was characterized to identify the effect of process parameters on distillate flux and thermal efficiency. Favorable conditions to obtain distillate flow rate of 1.5-3 kg/h were determined on a bench scale experimental setup. Factorial design of experiments was conducted and response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to develop an empirical regression model relating operating parameters with AGMD system performance indicators. Operating parameters including hot feed inlet temperature (T-Hin), cold feed inlet temperature (T-Cin), feed flow rate (V-f) and feed conductivity (C-f) were considered. Distillate flux (J(d)) and specific performance ratio (SPR) were selected as the performance indicators for the modeling. The developed regression model using RSM was tested by analysis of variance. Regression analysis showed agreement with the experimental data fitted with second-order polynomial model having determination coefficient (R-2) values of 0.996 and 0.941 for J(d) and SPR, respectively. Numerical optimization has been carried out to identify optimal set of operating conditions for achieving desired operation. Also, dynamic simulation of the membrane distillation module integrated solar thermal system has been reported along with validation of the system model by comparing with the experimental data obtained from a pilot scale setup located in UAE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
DESALINATION PUBL, 2017
Keywords
AGMD, Factorial design, Response surface methodology, ANOVA, Solar membrane distillation
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-217068 (URN)10.5004/dwt.2017.21201 (DOI)000412880600013 ()2-s2.0-85031296454 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20171122

Available from: 2017-11-22 Created: 2017-11-22 Last updated: 2018-08-06Bibliographically approved
2. Co-Production Performance Evaluation of a Novel Solar Combi System for Simultaneous Pure Water and Hot Water Supply in Urban Households of UAE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Co-Production Performance Evaluation of a Novel Solar Combi System for Simultaneous Pure Water and Hot Water Supply in Urban Households of UAE
2017 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 481Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Water is the most desirable and sparse resource in Gulf cooperation council (GCC) region. Utilization of point-of-use (POU) water treatment devices has been gaining huge market recently due to increase in knowledge of urban population on health related issues over contaminants in decentralized water distribution networks. However, there is no foolproof way of knowing whether the treated water is free of contaminants harmful for drinking and hence reliance on certified bottled water has increased worldwide. The bottling process right from treatment to delivery is highly unsustainable due to huge energy demand along the supply chain. As a step towards sustainability, we investigated various ways of coupling of membrane distillation (MD) process with solar domestic heaters for co-production of domestic heat and pure water. Performance dynamics of various integration techniques have been evaluated and appropriate configuration has been identified for real scale application. A solar combi MD (SCMD) system is experimentally tested for single household application for production 20 L/day of pure water and 250 L/day of hot water simultaneously without any auxiliary heating device. The efficiency of co-production system is compared with individual operation of solar heaters and solar membrane distillation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2017
Keywords
solar domestic hot water (SDHW), co-production, membrane distillation (MD), solar combi, thermal storage
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-208255 (URN)10.3390/en10040481 (DOI)000400065000070 ()
Note

QC 20170626

Available from: 2017-06-26 Created: 2017-06-26 Last updated: 2018-08-06Bibliographically approved
3. Techno-economic optimization of solar thermal integrated membrane distillation for cogeneration of heat and pure water
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Techno-economic optimization of solar thermal integrated membrane distillation for cogeneration of heat and pure water
2017 (English)In: Desalination and Water Treatment, ISSN 1944-3994, E-ISSN 1944-3986, Vol. 98, p. 16-30Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this paper is to evaluate optimum design criteria for developing solar thermal integrated membrane distillation system for cogeneration of pure water and heat. The temporal and seasonal variability of the driving variables, such as ambient temperature and solar irradiance requires dynamic simulation of combined system using tools such as TRNSYS. Dynamic simulation and parametric analysis enables to design a functional system and then optimizes the design. In this study, the application of cogeneration system for residential households in United Arab Emirates is considered for per capita production of 4l/day of pure water and 50l/day of domestic hot water. The performance of cogeneration is optimized by varying various design parameters such as collector tilt angle, thermal storage volume and area of the solar collector field. Cogeneration solar fraction and payback period are considered as performance indicators for energetic and economic optimization. Further simulations are extended from small to large family application and for utilizing either flat plate (FPC) or evacuated tubular collector (ETC) systems. Optimized cogeneration system utilizes more than 80% of the available solar energy gain and operates at 45% and 60% collector efficiencies for FPC and ETC systems respectively Also, combined and system efficiencies of the cogeneration system are compared with standalone operational efficiencies for solar heaters and solar membrane distillation systems. Results show that, cogeneration operation reduces 6–16% of thermal energy demand and also enables 25% savings in electrical energy demand. Payback period could be reduced by 2.5–3 years by switching from regular solar water heating to cogeneration systems along with 4-fold increase in net cumulative savings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Desalination Publications, 2017
Keywords
Cogeneration, Dynamic simulation, SDHW, Solar membrane distillation, TRNSYS
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-222779 (URN)10.5004/dwt.2017.21615 (DOI)000423707000002 ()2-s2.0-85040924388 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20180212

Available from: 2018-02-12 Created: 2018-02-12 Last updated: 2018-08-06Bibliographically approved
4. Performance analysis of solar cogeneration system with different integration strategies for potable water and domestic hot water production
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance analysis of solar cogeneration system with different integration strategies for potable water and domestic hot water production
2016 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 170, p. 466-475Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A novel solar thermal cogeneration system featuring the provision of potable water with membrane distillation in combination with domestic hot water supply has been developed and experimentally analyzed. The system integrates evacuated tube collectors, thermal storage, membrane distillation unit, and heat exchangers with the overall goals of maximizing the two outputs while minimizing costs for the given design conditions. Experiments were conducted during one month's operation at AURAK's facility in UAE, with average peak global irradiation levels of 650 W/m2. System performance was determined for three integration strategies, all utilizing brackish water (typical conductivity of 20,000 μs/cm) as a feedstock: Thermal store integration (TSI), which resembles a conventional indirect solar domestic hot water system; Direct solar integration (DSI) connecting collectors directly to the membrane distillation unit without thermal storage, and Direct solar with thermal store integration (DSTSI), a combination of these two approaches. The DSTSI strategy offered the best performance given its operational flexibility. Here the maximum distillate productivity was 43 L/day for a total gross solar collector area of 96 m2. In terms of simultaneous hot water production, 277 kWh/day was achieved with this configuration. An economic analysis shows that the DSTSI strategy has a payback period of 3.9 years with net cumulative savings of $325,000 during the 20 year system lifetime.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Cogeneration, Evacuated tube collector, Membrane distillation, Solar energy, System integration, Thermal storage, Cogeneration plants, Distillation, Distillation equipment, Economic analysis, Heat storage, Hot water distribution systems, Investments, Water, Water supply, Evacuated tube collectors, Potable water
National Category
Energy Engineering Water Treatment
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-186962 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.02.033 (DOI)000374601400042 ()2-s2.0-84961670467 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160524

Available from: 2016-05-24 Created: 2016-05-16 Last updated: 2018-08-06Bibliographically approved
5. Experimental investigation of a novel solar thermal polygeneration plant in United Arab Emirates
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental investigation of a novel solar thermal polygeneration plant in United Arab Emirates
2016 (English)In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 91, p. 361-373Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The demands for space air conditioning and clean drinking water are relatively high in Middle East North African (MENA) countries. A sustainable and innovative approach to meet these demands along with the production of domestic hot water is experimentally investigated in this paper. A novel solar thermal poly-generation (STP) pilot plant is designed and developed for production of chilled water for air conditioning using absorption chiller, clean drinking water with membrane distillation units and domestic hot water by heat recovery. The STP system is developed with a flexibility to operate in four different modes: (i) solar cooling mode (ii) cogeneration of drinking water and domestic hot water (iii) cogeneration of cooling and desalination (iv) trigeneration. Operational flexibility allows consumers to utilize the available energy based on seasonal requirements. Performance of STP system is analyzed during summer months in RAKRIC research facility. Energy flows in STP pilot plant during peak load operations are analyzed for all four modes. STP system with trigeneration mode utilizes 23% more useful energy compared to solar cooling mode, which improves overall efficiency of the plant. Economic benefits of STP with trigeneration mode are evaluated with fuel cost inflation rate of 10%. STP plant has potential payback period of 9.08 years and net cumulative savings of $454,000 based on economic evaluation.

Keywords
Absorption chiller, Air gap membrane distillation, Solar thermal, Poly-generation, Domestic hot water
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-185334 (URN)10.1016/j.renene.2016.01.072 (DOI)000372382800035 ()2-s2.0-84957876420 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160421

Available from: 2016-04-21 Created: 2016-04-18 Last updated: 2018-08-06Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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Output format
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