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Berättelseskrivande i skolan: Att studera, beskriva och utveckla ett kunnande
Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
2018 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Story-Writing in school : To study, describe and develop a knowing (English)
Abstract [sv]

Syftet med avhandlingen är att bidra med kunskap om hur kunnandet att skriva berättelser kan bli undervisningsbart. Detta belyses ur två infallsvinklar, svenskdidaktiskt och metodologiskt. Avhandlingens empiriska underlag består av elevintervjuer, filmade lektioner, elevtexter, fältanteckningar, mötesprotokoll och reflektionsanteckningar som samlades in under genomförandet av en Learning study om berättelseskrivande i årskurs 3 och 4. I en Learning study undersöker en forskargrupp, med forskande lärare, iterativt hur undervisningen kan läggas upp för att eleverna ska utveckla ett avsett kunnande.

Med hjälp av narratologi, fenomenografi och variationsteori analyserades elevers kunnande, elevers lärande och undervisningen. Resultatet visar att när kunnandet att skriva berättelser ska göras undervisningsbart, behöver eleverna få möjlighet att urskilja (a) vad ett läsarperspektiv innebär samt (b) hur berättelsers struktur kan byggas upp med problem och lösning. Dessa båda aspekter specificeras i några andra aspekter, till exempel det utrymme olika delar i berättelsen får samt övergångarna mellan berättelsens ingående delar. I den här avhandlingen analyseras också hur lärares erfarenhetsbaserade kunskap samverkar med variationsteori i en Learning study, med utgångspunkt i Polanyis begrepp tyst kunskap och teoretiska resonemang om hur erfarenhet påverkar hantering, tolkning och bedömning av yrkesspecifika situationer. Resultatet visar att när lärares erfarenhet och variationsteorin kombineras i en iterativ modell finns förutsättningar för en kunskapsgenererande forskningsprocess. Lärarnas erfarenhetsbaserade kunskap påverkar valet av forskningsområde och gör att fokus riktas mot relevanta delar i analysprocessen. Variationsteorin bidrar med teoretiska redskap i analysen och leder till att lärandeobjektets innebörd och synliggörande är i fokus i hela processen.

Abstract [en]

The purpose of this thesis is to add knowledge about how the knowing of storywriting can be made teachable. This question will be addressed from two points of view: a subject-knowledge perspective and a methodological perspective. The data consists of student interviews, student stories, video-recorded lessons, field notes, meeting minutes and reflective notes collected during a Learning Study about story-writing with 9- and 10-year-old students. In a Learning Study a research group, made up of teacher researchers, investigated iteratively how the teaching can help students to develop a particular knowing. Students’ knowing, students’ learning and the instruction was analyzed using narratology, phenomenography and Variation Theory. The results show that in order to make the knowing of storywriting teachable, students need to be able to discern two main aspects: (a) seeing the story from the reader’s perspective and (b) discerning that a story is built up by problems and solutions. These two aspects consist of some other aspects, such as duration and connections between different parts of the story. The methodological issue is addressed by analyzing how teachers’ practice-based knowledge interacts with Variation Theory in a Learning Study. Polanyi’s concept of ”tacit knowledge” and other theoretical concepts of practice-based knowledge were used in the analysis. The results show that combining teachers’ experiences and Variation Theory in an iterative research model creates good conditions for a knowledge-generating process. Teachers’ practice-based knowledge affects the choice of research questions, and puts the focus on relevant parts of the data. Variation Theory brings theoretical tools to the analysis, and ensures there is a focus on the object of learning throughout the process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018. , p. 82
Series
Linköping Studies in Behavioural Science, ISSN 1654-2029 ; 208
Keywords [en]
Learning Study, practice-based research, story-writing, Variation Theory, writing instruction
Keywords [sv]
Berättelseskrivande, Learning study, praktiknära forskning, skrivundervisning, svenskdidaktik, variationsteori
National Category
Learning
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-149806DOI: 10.3384/diss.diva-149806ISBN: 9789176852583 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-149806DiVA, id: diva2:1235493
Public defence
2018-08-31, I:101, I-huset, Campus Valla, Linköping, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-07-26 Created: 2018-07-26 Last updated: 2018-08-01Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Perspektiv och problemlösning i berättelseskrivande: Vad elever behöver lära sig och hur det kan synliggöras i undervisningen
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perspektiv och problemlösning i berättelseskrivande: Vad elever behöver lära sig och hur det kan synliggöras i undervisningen
2014 (Swedish)Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Perspectives and Problem Solving in Story Writing. : What pupils need to learn and how teaching can make it visible.
Abstract [en]

The aim of the study at hand is to generate knowledge about what pupils aged nine to ten years old need to discern in order to develop the ability to write stories with a well-developed, exciting and coherent plot, and how teaching can make it possible for the pupils to develop this ability. The theoretical framework has been Variation Theory. It is a theory of learning that focuses on how discernment of aspects affects the way we perceive our world and how variation can be used to promote learning. A basic assumption is that we learn by seeing differences, not by seeing sameness. Learning Study was used to answer the research questions. It is an interventionist approach, where the focus is on an object of learning, in this case the ability to write stories with a well-developed, exciting and coherent plot. In the research process the aim was to find out which aspects were critical for the pupils to discern in order to develop the ability, and how these could be made visible in the teaching. Together with a group of teachers, lessons were planned, implemented, evaluated and refined in an iterative process. Interview data, pupils’ texts written before and after the lessons and video recordings from the lessons were the basis of the analysis. It was found that in order for these learners to handle the object of learning, they needed to discern eight critical aspects that can be related to two different areas: (a) discerning the perspective of a reader and (b) seeing that a plot consists of several problems and solutions. The aspects were made discernible by using contrast as a pedagogical tool. The result of the study contributes to previous research by identifying and specifying what the pupils need to discern, what it means in a classroom setting and how it can be taught in a powerful way. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Jönköping: Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, 2014. p. 174
Series
Research Reports. School of Education and Communication ; 2
Keywords
Story writing, writing instruction, creative writing, Variation Theory, Learning Study, primary school, berättelseskrivande, skrivundervisning, kreativt skrivande, variationsteorin, learning study, grundskolan
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-149808 (URN)9789163760297 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-07-25 Created: 2018-07-25 Last updated: 2018-08-01Bibliographically approved
2. How teachers’ practice knowledge is used and challenged in a Learning Study using Variation Theory as a tool
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How teachers’ practice knowledge is used and challenged in a Learning Study using Variation Theory as a tool
2015 (English)In: International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, ISSN 2046-8253, E-ISSN 2046-8261, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 274-287Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to discuss how teachers’ practice knowledge is used as a tool in a Learning Study and how teachers’ practice knowledge is challenged by using Variation Theory as a tool in the process?Design/methodology/approach– The analysis is based on data from the research process in a Learning Study. The data consists of meeting notes of ten research meetings, field notes of the research meetings and from the enactment of the lessons, video recordings of the lessons and reflective notes after and between the meetings. The analysis is qualitative and the findings are described in themes.Findings– Teachers’ practice knowledge was used and challenged in different ways in the process. This is described in five themes. Teachers’ practice knowledge was visible in the process since it enabled relevant questions to be addressed and subtle signals from students to be taken into account. It also ensured that the activities used were suitable for the students. The theory provided a focus on the object of learning and a language to talk about teaching and learning. It also challenged teachers’ assumptions about teaching and learning and allowed them to be discussed.Originality/value– The paper addresses both teachers’ practice knowledge and Variation Theory in relation to a Learning Study. It focusses on how practice knowledge of teachers can be used and challenged in the same process. The perspective is from the inside, from a teacher researcher’s point of view.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2015
Keywords
Teaching, Tacit knowledge, Variation Theory, Learning study, Practice knowledge
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-139951 (URN)10.1108/IJLLS-08-2014-0030 (DOI)2-s2.0-84958948456 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-22 Last updated: 2018-07-26Bibliographically approved
3. Generating knowledge in a Learning Study: from the perspective of a teacher researcher
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Generating knowledge in a Learning Study: from the perspective of a teacher researcher
2017 (English)In: Educational action research, ISSN 0965-0792, E-ISSN 1747-5074, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 140-154Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this article is to discuss and describe how a clinical research method can be used to generate knowledge about teaching and learning. This will be addressed from a teacher researcher’s perspective, taking a conducted Learning Study as the departure. Learning Study is an interventionist, iterative and collaborative research approach, focusing on the teaching of an object of learning. The actual study was conducted by a teacher researcher leading a teacher research team in a study about story-writing in primary school. The research process and the results are discussed using four areas that are described as dichotomies by Labaree (Labaree, D.F. 2003. “The Peculiar Problems of Preparing Educational Researchers.” Educational Researcher 32 (4): 13–22). Labaree states that teacher researchers need to go from being normative, experimental, personal and particular to being analytical, theoretical, intellectual and universal. By using examples from the Learning Study, I argue that these areas do not have to be seen as dichotomies; instead they can be combined and intertwined. Thus, in a Learning Study, elements from both the teaching practice and the academic practice matter, thus enhancing the possibility that results are useful for practitioners.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2017
Keywords
Learning Study, teacher research, clinical research, Variation Theory, writing instruction
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-139952 (URN)10.1080/09650792.2016.1141108 (DOI)000395153700011 ()2-s2.0-85011932347 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-22 Last updated: 2018-07-26Bibliographically approved

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Output format
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