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Perspektiv och problemlösning i berättelseskrivande: Vad elever behöver lära sig och hur det kan synliggöras i undervisningen
Läs & skriv, Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation, HLK, Skolnära forskning, Högskolan i Jönköping.
2014 (Swedish)Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)Alternative title
Perspectives and Problem Solving in Story Writing. : What pupils need to learn and how teaching can make it visible. (English)
Abstract [en]

The aim of the study at hand is to generate knowledge about what pupils aged nine to ten years old need to discern in order to develop the ability to write stories with a well-developed, exciting and coherent plot, and how teaching can make it possible for the pupils to develop this ability. The theoretical framework has been Variation Theory. It is a theory of learning that focuses on how discernment of aspects affects the way we perceive our world and how variation can be used to promote learning. A basic assumption is that we learn by seeing differences, not by seeing sameness. Learning Study was used to answer the research questions. It is an interventionist approach, where the focus is on an object of learning, in this case the ability to write stories with a well-developed, exciting and coherent plot. In the research process the aim was to find out which aspects were critical for the pupils to discern in order to develop the ability, and how these could be made visible in the teaching. Together with a group of teachers, lessons were planned, implemented, evaluated and refined in an iterative process. Interview data, pupils’ texts written before and after the lessons and video recordings from the lessons were the basis of the analysis. It was found that in order for these learners to handle the object of learning, they needed to discern eight critical aspects that can be related to two different areas: (a) discerning the perspective of a reader and (b) seeing that a plot consists of several problems and solutions. The aspects were made discernible by using contrast as a pedagogical tool. The result of the study contributes to previous research by identifying and specifying what the pupils need to discern, what it means in a classroom setting and how it can be taught in a powerful way. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Jönköping: Högskolan för lärande och kommunikation , 2014. , p. 174
Series
Research Reports. School of Education and Communication ; 2
Keywords [en]
Story writing, writing instruction, creative writing, Variation Theory, Learning Study, primary school
Keywords [sv]
berättelseskrivande, skrivundervisning, kreativt skrivande, variationsteorin, learning study, grundskolan
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-149808ISBN: 9789163760297 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-149808DiVA, id: diva2:1235468
Available from: 2018-07-25 Created: 2018-07-25 Last updated: 2018-08-01Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Berättelseskrivande i skolan: Att studera, beskriva och utveckla ett kunnande
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Berättelseskrivande i skolan: Att studera, beskriva och utveckla ett kunnande
2018 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Story-Writing in school : To study, describe and develop a knowing
Abstract [sv]

Syftet med avhandlingen är att bidra med kunskap om hur kunnandet att skriva berättelser kan bli undervisningsbart. Detta belyses ur två infallsvinklar, svenskdidaktiskt och metodologiskt. Avhandlingens empiriska underlag består av elevintervjuer, filmade lektioner, elevtexter, fältanteckningar, mötesprotokoll och reflektionsanteckningar som samlades in under genomförandet av en Learning study om berättelseskrivande i årskurs 3 och 4. I en Learning study undersöker en forskargrupp, med forskande lärare, iterativt hur undervisningen kan läggas upp för att eleverna ska utveckla ett avsett kunnande.

Med hjälp av narratologi, fenomenografi och variationsteori analyserades elevers kunnande, elevers lärande och undervisningen. Resultatet visar att när kunnandet att skriva berättelser ska göras undervisningsbart, behöver eleverna få möjlighet att urskilja (a) vad ett läsarperspektiv innebär samt (b) hur berättelsers struktur kan byggas upp med problem och lösning. Dessa båda aspekter specificeras i några andra aspekter, till exempel det utrymme olika delar i berättelsen får samt övergångarna mellan berättelsens ingående delar. I den här avhandlingen analyseras också hur lärares erfarenhetsbaserade kunskap samverkar med variationsteori i en Learning study, med utgångspunkt i Polanyis begrepp tyst kunskap och teoretiska resonemang om hur erfarenhet påverkar hantering, tolkning och bedömning av yrkesspecifika situationer. Resultatet visar att när lärares erfarenhet och variationsteorin kombineras i en iterativ modell finns förutsättningar för en kunskapsgenererande forskningsprocess. Lärarnas erfarenhetsbaserade kunskap påverkar valet av forskningsområde och gör att fokus riktas mot relevanta delar i analysprocessen. Variationsteorin bidrar med teoretiska redskap i analysen och leder till att lärandeobjektets innebörd och synliggörande är i fokus i hela processen.

Abstract [en]

The purpose of this thesis is to add knowledge about how the knowing of storywriting can be made teachable. This question will be addressed from two points of view: a subject-knowledge perspective and a methodological perspective. The data consists of student interviews, student stories, video-recorded lessons, field notes, meeting minutes and reflective notes collected during a Learning Study about story-writing with 9- and 10-year-old students. In a Learning Study a research group, made up of teacher researchers, investigated iteratively how the teaching can help students to develop a particular knowing. Students’ knowing, students’ learning and the instruction was analyzed using narratology, phenomenography and Variation Theory. The results show that in order to make the knowing of storywriting teachable, students need to be able to discern two main aspects: (a) seeing the story from the reader’s perspective and (b) discerning that a story is built up by problems and solutions. These two aspects consist of some other aspects, such as duration and connections between different parts of the story. The methodological issue is addressed by analyzing how teachers’ practice-based knowledge interacts with Variation Theory in a Learning Study. Polanyi’s concept of ”tacit knowledge” and other theoretical concepts of practice-based knowledge were used in the analysis. The results show that combining teachers’ experiences and Variation Theory in an iterative research model creates good conditions for a knowledge-generating process. Teachers’ practice-based knowledge affects the choice of research questions, and puts the focus on relevant parts of the data. Variation Theory brings theoretical tools to the analysis, and ensures there is a focus on the object of learning throughout the process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018. p. 82
Series
Linköping Studies in Behavioural Science, ISSN 1654-2029 ; 208
Keywords
Learning Study, practice-based research, story-writing, Variation Theory, writing instruction, Berättelseskrivande, Learning study, praktiknära forskning, skrivundervisning, svenskdidaktik, variationsteori
National Category
Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-149806 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-149806 (DOI)9789176852583 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-08-31, I:101, I-huset, Campus Valla, Linköping, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-07-26 Created: 2018-07-26 Last updated: 2018-08-01Bibliographically approved

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