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Economic and Environmental Analysis of Excess Heat at Pulp Mills
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
2018 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

European industries have realized that a reduction of primary energy usage is not only a European requirement but can also be of great economic interest. Especially both energy and resource intensive industries like the pulp and paper industry will benefit. Industrial excess heat as a by-product of industrial processes needing energy has a great potential to be a key factor in reducing primary energy usage. Both excess heat utilization and heat integration are potential ways for Kraft pulp mills to increase their energy efficiency, to decrease their primary energy use and thus green-house gas emission, and to support the pulp and paper industry to achieve sustainability goals and meet EU regulations. This thesis examines the total excess heat potential in the Swedish Kraft pulp industry through pinch analysis and optimization on a modelled average Swedish Kraft pulp mill (FRAM). Different excess heat recovery technologies (EHRTs) are identified based on their applicability and are evaluated regarding their environmental and economic benefits for the Swedish pulp industry by using the energy price and carbon scenarios tool (ENPAC tool). An excess heat potential in the Swedish Kraft pulp mill industry of 2,03 TWh at 60°C, and 3,53 TWh at 25°C is found in this study. Heat delivery to the district heating network (DH), cooling delivery to the district cooling network (DC), electricity generation with a condensing turbine (CT), phase-change material engine (PCM) and organic Rankine cycle (ORC) are identified as suitable excess heat recovery technologies for Swedish Kraft pulp mills. A payback time calculation in this study found the condensing turbine as the EHRT to be of highest economic benefit in 2018 (less than 3 years). With predicted future energy prices of the years 2030, 2040 and 2050 all considered recovery technologies become economically feasible (payback time of less than 3 years). The CT and combinations of CT with DH and DC are furthermore the recovery technologies with the highest CO2 savings of 100.000 t/a in 2018. All in all, this study suggests investing in a CT, or combinations of it with DH and DC, to create the greatest economic and environmental benefits in 2018. With future price changes on the energy market and an uncertain future energy demand an investment in combinations of recovery technologies generating both heat, cooling and electricity is found to be the most sustainable choice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. , p. 72
Keywords [en]
FRAM, industrial excess heat, excess heat recovery technology, ENPAC
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-148416ISRN: LIU-IEI-TEK-A--18/03113—SEOAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-148416DiVA, id: diva2:1235375
Subject / course
Master’s Program in Energy and Environmental Engineering
Presentation
2018-06-15, Linköping, 10:15 (English)
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2018-08-06 Created: 2018-07-25 Last updated: 2018-08-06Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
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