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Prediction of early age and time dependent deformations in a massive concrete structure
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
2018 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

The heat development that occurs due to the hydration of cement is important to consider during casting of massive concrete structures. By using computer programs that are based on finite element methods (FEM), simulations can be performed on the heat- and strength development. In this project, a FE program called ConTeSt has been used in order to predict the temperature- and strain development in a massive concrete wall. If the potential risks in a concrete structure are evaluated before casting, economical savings, including a better casting plan could be obtained. The structure under investigation was a concrete wall behind one of the spillways in the hydro power dam of Storfinnforsen. Due to a re-construction of the wall, an opportunity occurred to develop a measurement plan of the casting and perform simulations on the wall.

A sensitivity analysis was performed in order to investigate the effects on the temperature- and strain development, by varying the cement content, ambient temperature, wind speed and degree of restraint in translation. The results showed, that a higher cement content increased the rate of hydration and hence the temperature in the concrete. Higher wind speeds contributed to more cooling of the concrete which, in some cases, resulted in cracking due to contraction of the material. Cracking due to contraction also occurred when the ambient temperature was decreased. The ambient temperature did not have a significant impact on the rate of hydration, but instead the impact was larger from the initial temperature of the fresh concrete. A higher initial temperature of the fresh concrete increased the rate of hydration, which increased the temperature in the material. The degree of restraint could only be varied in translation in ConTeSt and hence the effect on the strain development was not that significant.

A crack risk analysis was performed where the developed tensile stresses were compared with the tensile strength of the concrete. The same factors were varied as in the sensitivity analysis. The results showed that the tensile strength was exceeded for most of the cases and thus that the crack risk was high.

The required equipment, in order to perform the measurements on site, consisted of 7 strain gauges of the module KM-100B from TML Tokyo Sokki Kenkyujo, 2 data loggers of the module Spider-8 from HBM, at least a 25 m ø9 mm 5-core shielded cable and a computer with the software Catman Easy.

Abstract [sv]

Värmeutvecklingen som uppstår på grund av hydratationen av cement är viktig att beakta vid gjutning av massiva betongkonstruktioner. Detta brukar göras genom simuleringar av värmeutvecklingen och hållfasthetstillväxten med hjälp av olika finita element (FE) program. I detta projekt har programmet ConTeSt använts för att på förhand kunna förutse temperatur - och töjningsutvecklingen i en massiv betongvägg. I och med detta kan bl.a. gjutningen planeras bättre samtidigt som ekonomiska besparingar kan åstadkommas om eventuella risker kan kartläggas innan gjutningen påbörjas. En ledmur bakom ett av utskoven i Storfinnforsens kraftverk undersöktes närmare i samband med en ombyggnad. Möjligheten uppstod att planera en mätning av gjutningen av ledmuren samt att utföra simuleringar av väggen i ConTeSt.

En känslighetsanalys utfördes för att undersöka effekterna på temperatur- och töjningsutvecklingen genom att variera cementhalten, omgivningstemperaturen, vindhastigheten och graden av tvång i förskjutningen i längdriktningen av väggen. Resultaten visade att högre cementhalter ökade graden av hydratation vilket ökade temperaturen i betongen. Högre vindhastigheter bidrog till snabbare kylning av betongen vilket i vissa fall lett till sprickor på grund av kontraktion av materialet. Sprickor till följd av kontraktion uppstod även då omgivningstemperaturen sänktes. Omgivningstemperaturen hade ingen större påverkan på hydratationen, utan istället var det temperaturen av den färska betongmassan som visade större påverkan. Högre temperatur av den färska betongmassan ökade graden av hydratation vilket ökade temperaturen i betongen. Graden av tvång kunde i ConTeSt endast varieras i förskjutningen i längdriktningen av väggen vilket inte hade någon större effekt på töjningsutvecklingen.

En sprickrisk analys utfördes där den utvecklade dragspänningen jämfördes med draghållfastheten. Analysen utfördes genom att variera samma faktorer som varierades i känslighetsanalysen. Resultaten visade att draghållfastheten överskreds i de flesta fall och att därmed sprickrisken var hög.

För att genomföra mätningen blev slutsatsen att det behövs 7 st töjningsgivare av modell KM-100B från TML Tokyo Sokki Kenkyujo, 2 st data logger av typ Spider8 från HBM samt minst en 25 m ø9 mm skärmad 5-kärnkabel, inklusive en dator med programvaran Catman Easy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018.
Series
TRITA-ABE-MBT ; 18365
Keywords [en]
Early age concrete, hydration of cement, Storfinnforsen, ConTeSt, crack risk, temperature development, strain, mass concrete structures, measurement plan
Keywords [sv]
Ung betong, hydratation av cement, Storfinnforsens kraftverk, ConTeSt, sprickrisk, temperatur, töjning, massiva konstruktioner, mätningsplanering
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-231551OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-231551DiVA, id: diva2:1229263
External cooperation
WSP Sverige AB
Subject / course
Concrete Structures
Educational program
Master of Science in Engineering - Urban Management
Presentation
2018-06-04, Sal B3, Brinellvägen 23, Stockholm, 15:30 (English)
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2018-07-02 Created: 2018-06-29 Last updated: 2018-07-02Bibliographically approved

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