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Examination of Ancient Scandinavian Archaeological Findings: From Tortuna in Västerås, Sweden
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
2018 (English)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

This study concerns the examinations of archaeological steel-objects from the Iron Ages, found in Tortuna outside Västerås, Sweden. Not many metallurgical analyses have been made on steel objects from the Iron Ages, most likely in order to preserve the findings. Therefore, very little knowledge about old steel materials exists.The main goal of this study was to investigate how steel-made items from the Iron Ages were created, what they have been used for, and determine what kind of metallurgical knowledge the blacksmiths of the Iron Ages had.

The experiments were conducted with light optical microscopy in order to investigate the morphology of the materials and with Vickers hardness test, to investigate the hardness of the materials.

The investigation gave varying results for the different iron-made objects. All of the objects have been forged in some way. Most of the objects, were made of heterogeneous low carbon steel with a mainly ferritic structure. Some items also showed a martensitic structure with a ferritic core, which concludes that the smiths probably knew how to quench and temper steel. Due to heavy corrosion on many ofthe items, further investigation is needed to strengthen the conclusions made in this report.

Abstract [sv]

Denna studie behandlar undersökningar av arkeologiska stålobjekt från järnåldern,hittade i Tortuna utanför Västerås, Sverige. Det har inte gjorts många metallurgiska analyser på stålobjekt från järnåldern, troligen för att bevara föremålen. Därför finnsdet lite kunskap om gamla stålmaterial. Huvudsyftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur föremål i stål från järnåldern tillverkades, vad de har använts för och bestämma vilken typ av metallurgisk kunskap dåtiens smed besatt.

Experimenten utfördes med hjälp av ljus optisk mikroskop för att undersöka materialets morfologi och med hjälp av Vickers hårdhetsprov för att undersöka materialens hårdhet.

Undersökningen gav olika resultat för föremålen. Alla föremål är smidda på något sätt. De flesta föremålen bestod av heterogent kolstål med huvudsakligen ferritisk struktur. Vissa föremål visade också en martensitisk struktur med en ferritisk kärna,vilket visar på att smeden troligen visste hur man härdar och anlöper stål. På grund av stor korrosion på många av föremålen krävs ytterligare analyser för att stärka slutsatserna i denna rapport.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. , p. 45
Keywords [en]
Forging, microstructure, steel manufacturing, Iron Ages, bloomery furnace, amulet rings, edge tools, horse cleat, Vickers hardness
Keywords [sv]
Smide, mikrostruktur, ståltillverkning, järnåldern, blästerugn, amulettringar, eggverktyg, hästbrodd, Vickers hårdhet
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-231497OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-231497DiVA, id: diva2:1228841
External cooperation
Sebastian Wärmländer; Anneli Sundkvist
Subject / course
Materials and Process Design
Educational program
Master of Science in Engineering - Materials Design and Engineering
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2018-06-29 Created: 2018-06-28 Last updated: 2018-06-29Bibliographically approved

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