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Effects of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection on nuclear amyloid aggregation
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
2018 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Huntington’s disease (HD) and Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) are incurable neurodegenerative diseases that affect the central nervous system. Amyloids, highly organized protein aggregates, are a hallmark for many neurodegenerative diseases. The presence and accumulation of amyloids are toxic and constitute the major cause of neuron cell death. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the onset and progression of these diseases. However, despite intensive research, the underlying cause remains unclear. The role of viral infection as an environmental factor in the context of neurodegenerative diseases has not received much attention. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) infection on nuclear amyloid aggregation in model cell lines of HD and SCA. The research process consists mainly of laboratory work which involved the use of several molecular techniques used in the field of biotechnology. The work comprises cultivating cells, infecting cells with HSV-1, Fluorescence microscopy, Western Blot and isolation and detection of amyloids. Western Blot is used for the analysis of specific proteins associated with protein aggregation in HD and SCA. The techniques used for detecting amyloids are Dot Blot and Antibody-staining of amyloids in cells. The results from Western Blot showed that aggregates changed in the presence of the virus. This pattern is observed for both HD and SCA1 cell lines. A big effort is done in this study to optimize Dot Blot as it is method that could be applied in every lab. Normalization of samples proved to be the most challenging part with Dot Blot. No definitive conclusions can be drawn from the Dot Blot results as reproducibility and sensitivity were lacking. This work addresses some of the difficulties encountered when working with detection of amyloids especially Dot Blot. Antibody-staining of amyloids showed that amyloids were formed in the presence of virus in comparison to non-infected. To conclude, aggregates changed, and amyloids were formed in the presence of virus. These results point to the fact that HSV-1 infection could be involved in the process of nuclear amyloid aggregation. The data presented in this thesis will need further investigation and characterization to identify the precise role of viral-induced amyloid formation in HD and SCA patient cells.

Abstract [sv]

Huntingtons sjukdom (HD) och Spinocerebellära ataxier (SCA) är obotliga neurodegenerativa sjukdomar som påverkar det centrala nervsystemet. Amyloid, proteinaggregat som har en viss konformation är ett kännemärke för många neurodegenerativa sjukdomar. Ackumulering av dessa amyloider är toxiskt och är den främsta orsaken till att nervceller dör. Både genetiska faktorer och miljöfaktorer bidrar till uppkomsten och progressionen av dessa sjukdomar. Trots intensiv forskning är den bakomliggande orsaken emellertid fortfarande oklar. Virusinfektion som en potentiell miljöfaktor har i detta sammanhang inte fått mycket uppmärksamhet. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka effekterna av Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) infektion på amyloid aggregering i modellcellinjer av HD och SCA. Forskningsarbetet bestod i huvudsakligen av experimentellt arbete med hjälp av flera molekylära tekniker inom bioteknikområdet som cell odling, infektering av celler med HSV-1, fluorescensmikroskopi, Western Blot och isolering och detektion av amyloider. Western Blot användes for att analysera specifika proteiner associerade med protein aggregering i HD och SCA. Amyloider detekterades med Dot Blot och med antikroppar specifika för amyloider. Resultat från Western Blot visade att amyloiderna förändras i virusinfekterade celler. Detta mönster observerades i både HD and SCA1 cellinjer. En stor bemöda görs i denna studie för att optimera Dot Blot eftersom det är en metod som kan användas i alla laboratorier. Normalisering visade sig vara det svåraste med detektion av amyloider. Inga definitiva slutsatser kan dras från dessa experiment, eftersom reproducerbarhet och känslighet var bristande. Detta arbete tar upp några av de svårigheter som uppstod vid arbetande med detektion av amyloider speciellt Dot Blot. Detektion av amyloider med antikropp visade att amyloider bildades till stor utsträckning i infekterade cellinjer i jämförelse med icke-infekterade. Sammanfattningsvis, amyloider förändrades och amyloider bildades i närvaro av virus. Dessa resultat indikerar på att HSV-1 infektion skulle kunna vara involverad i processen av amyloid aggregering. De presenterade uppgifter i detta examensarbete är preliminära och behöver följas upp med ytterligare studier för att identifiera virusens exakta roll i amyloid bildning i HD och SCA patient celler.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018.
Keywords [en]
Huntington’s disease, Spinocerebellar ataxia, Amyloids, Protein aggregation, Herpes Simplex Virus 1, HSV-1, Virus infection, oligonucleotides, Filter retardation Assay, Dot Blot.
Keywords [sv]
Huntingtons sjukdom, Spinocerebellära ataxier, Amyloider, Protein aggregering, Herpes Simplex Virus 1, HSV-1, Virus infektion, Oligonukleotider, Filter retardation Assay, Dot Blot.
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-231319OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-231319DiVA, id: diva2:1223955
Available from: 2018-06-26 Created: 2018-06-26 Last updated: 2018-06-26Bibliographically approved

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