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Hur överensstämmer patienters kosthållning med Nordiska Näringsrekommendationer efter akut koronal händelse: en kvantitativ enkätstudie
Sophiahemmet University.
Sophiahemmet University.
2018 (Swedish)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [sv]

En hälsosam kosthållning minskar risken för kardiovaskulär sjukdom och bidrar till en minskad risk för akut koronart syndrom. De nordiska näringsrekommendationerna innehåller riktlinjer för att förebygga kardiovaskulär sjukdom, och dessa har vidare kvantifierats av Livsmedelsverket. Trots de stora hälsofördelar som en sådan kosthållning medför når få svenskar de uppsatta målen och kunskapen om hur kostvanorna ser ut hos gruppen av personer som genomgått akut koronar händelse är begränsad.

Syftet var att undersöka hur kosthållningen hos patienter som vårdades för akut koronart syndrom stämmer överens med de nordiska näringsrekommendationerna.

För att svara på syftet användes en kvantitativ metod i form av en enkätstudie. Fyrtiotvå personer som genomgått akut koronart syndrom rekryterades genom konsekutivt urval på tre hjärtmottagningar i södra Sverige. Svarsfrekvensen var 76 procent, vilket antyder att studien har god generaliserbarhet. Samband undersöktes genom Students t-test test och Fishers exakta test.

Resultatet visade att enbart två procent av patienterna nådde kostrekommendationerna gällande frukt och grönsaker, och lika stor andel nådde det rekommenderade intaget av fullkornsprodukter. För konsumtion av rött kött och charkuteriprodukter åt 88 procent i enlighet med näringsrekommendationerna. Tjugosex procent åt den rekommenderade mängden nötter och frön medan 64 procent av studiedeltagarna nådde det uppsatta målet för intag av fisk. Enbart en liten andel av studiedeltagarna hade helt uteslutit feta mejeriprodukter och smörbaserade matfetter från sin kost i enlighet med rekommendationerna.

Slutsatsen kunde dras att patienter som genomgått akut koronar händelse har en kosthållning som i liten grad överensstämmer med de Nordiska Näringsrekommendationerna. Med ökad kunskap om kostintagets betydelse finns det förbättringspotential för denna grupp patienters kostförändringar och hur personcentrerade kostinterventioner kan bidra till ökad kardiovaskulär hälsa.

Abstract [en]

Adhering to a healthy diet reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease and contributes to a lower risk of acute coronary syndrome. The Nordic Nutrition Recommendations includes a set of nutritional guidelines aimed at preventing cardiovascular disease and these have been further quantified by the Swedish National Food Agency. Despite the big health improvements that such a diet entails, few Swedes meet the recommended daily intakes. Little is known about how the dietary patterns of the specific subgroup of people who have experienced an acute coronary event compares to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations.

The aim was to investigate to what extent patients whom have been treated for acute coronary syndrome adhere to the latest nutritional guidelines given by the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012.

To answer the aim of the study a quantitative method was used through a survey study. Forty-two people were enrolled by consecutive sampling from three different heart polyclinics in southern Sweden. The study had a response rate of 76 percent, which suggests that the study had a high generalisability. Correlations between independent variables were controlled with Student’s t-test and Fisher’s exact test.

The results showed that only two percent of the patients reached the guidelines dietary reference level when it comes to fruits and vegetables. The same result was shown when it comes to wholegrain dietary intake among this population, only two percent reached the recommended level. Looking at the dietary intake of red meat the result showed that 88 percent eat according to The Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. Looking at the intake of nuts and seeds, 26 percent of the patients ate as suggested in the guidelines. Sixty-four percent of this studies participants reached the recommended intake of fish per week. Only a low rate of the patients had completely excluded fat dairy products and butter-based products.

The conclusion was made that patients who went through an acute coronary event have a dietary consumption that to a low extent correspond to The Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. There are room for improvement in this area. With the help of further studies in this subject would illuminate greater understanding about the dietary patterns among this patient group and how patient participatory dietary interventions could contribute to cardiovascular health.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. , p. 30
Keywords [en]
Diet, Nutrition Policy, Acute Coronary Syndrome, Secondary prevention, Cross-Sectional Studies
Keywords [sv]
Kost, Näringsrekommendationer, Akut koronarsyndrom, Sekundärprevention, Tvärsnittsstudier
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:shh:diva-3056OAI: oai:DiVA.org:shh-3056DiVA, id: diva2:1223739
Educational program
Specialistsjuksköterskeprogrammet : inriktning hjärtsjukvård
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2018-06-26 Created: 2018-06-25 Last updated: 2018-06-26Bibliographically approved

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