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Ecological opportunity and predator-prey interactions: linking eco-evolutionary processes and diversification in adaptive radiations
Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 285, no 1874, article id 20172550Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Much of life's diversity has arisen through ecological opportunity and adaptive radiations, but the mechanistic underpinning of such diversification is not fully understood. Competition and predation can affect adaptive radiations, but contrasting theoretical and empirical results show that they can both promote and interrupt diversification. A mechanistic understanding of the link between microevolutionary processes and macroevolutionary patterns is thus needed, especially in trophic communities. Here, we use a trait-based eco-evolutionary model to investigate the mechanisms linking competition, predation and adaptive radiations. By combining available micro-evolutionary theory and simulations of adaptive radiations we show that intraspecific competition is crucial for diversification as it induces disruptive selection, in particular in early phases of radiation. The diversification rate is however decreased in later phases owing to interspecific competition as niche availability, and population sizes are decreased. We provide new insight into how predation tends to have a negative effect on prey diversification through decreased population sizes, decreased disruptive selection and through the exclusion of prey from parts of niche space. The seemingly disparate effects of competition and predation on adaptive radiations, listed in the literature, may thus be acting and interacting in the same adaptive radiation at different relative strength as the radiation progresses.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Royal Society , 2018. Vol. 285, no 1874, article id 20172550
Keywords [en]
adaptive radiation, macroevolution, community patterns, competition, predation, ecological speciation
National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-148654DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2017.2550ISI: 000428940300005PubMedID: 29514970Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85043577692OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-148654DiVA, id: diva2:1223499
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilAvailable from: 2018-06-25 Created: 2018-06-25 Last updated: 2018-06-25Bibliographically approved

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