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Development and Characterization of Parallel-Plate Avalanche Counters for Nuclear Physics Experiments
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Applied Nuclear Physics.
2018 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Parallel-plate avalanche counters, PPACs, are commonly used to detect fission fragments. The PPAC detects them and mark (very accurately) the time of detection. Such measurements can be used to measure the neutron energy (via time-of-flight) to study neutron-induced fission.This project report provides a method that, together with the discussed improvements, allows the fabrication of good quality PPAC detectors. Several PPACs are manufactured and the electrodes are built from 0.9 µm thick mylar foils which are evaporated with a 40-80 nm thin layer of aluminum.The developed PPACs are characterized with well known radioactive Cf and Am sources (the source characterization also found in this report), and compared against each other. Additionally, the PPAC signal amplitude spectrum are found to follow theoretical expectations with regards to angular dependence, gas pressure and an applied electrode voltage.At a specific applied electrode voltage and range of gas pressures (3-9 mbar), the measured time resolutions are 2.24-1.38 ns. A trend is observed for finer time resolutions at higher gas pressures.

Abstract [sv]

Parallel-plate avalanche counters, PPACs, används ofta för att detektera fissionsfragment. PPAC:en detekterar fragmenten med väldigt god tidsupplösning och således kan PPAC detektorer användas till att mäta neutron energier (mha. flygtidsmetoden), vilka uppmätts för att studera neutroninducerad fission.Det här projektet och den här rapporten beskriver en metod, med föreslagna förbättringar, som möjliggör tillverkning av PPAC detektorer av bra kvalitet. Under projektet har flera PPACs byggts med elektroder gjorda av 0.9 µm tunn mylar förångade med 40-80 nm aluminium. De tillverkade PPAC detektorerna är karaktäriserade med väl kända radioaktiva Cf- och Am-källor (dessa karaktäriseras även i den här rapporten). Detektorerna är sedan jämförda mot varandra och är funna att följa teoretiska förväntningar med avseende på vinkel-, gastryck- och pålagd elektrodspänningsberoende.Resultaten av projektet, som besvarar flera tidigare frågeställningar och bekräftar vissa antaganden, flyttar utsikten och förståelsen framåt för hur PPACs fungerar och vad forskarna kan uppnå med dem.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. , p. 60
Series
UPTEC F, ISSN 1401-5757 ; 18009
Keywords [en]
PPAC, Parallel-Plate Avalanche Counters, Gas Ionizing Detector, Gas Amplification, Characterization, NFS, Radioactive source, Am-241, Cf-252, Fission Fragments, Alpha Particles, Time Resolution, Angular Dependence, Gas Pressure Dependence, Townsend Coefficient, PPAC Design, Manufacture, Manufacturing, Mylar foil, Aluminium Evaporation
National Category
Other Physics Topics Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-354818OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-354818DiVA, id: diva2:1222758
Educational program
Master Programme in Engineering Physics
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2018-06-26 Created: 2018-06-22 Last updated: 2018-06-26Bibliographically approved

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