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Fake news efter konstens alla regler: En visuell retorisk analys om spridningen av fake news i samband med terrorattentatet på Drottninggatan i Stockholm 2017
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Literature, Rhetoric.
2018 (Swedish)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [sv]

Stockholm den 7 april 2017, klockan 14:59: rapporter om en lastbil som körde på människor längs Drottninggatan i centrala Stockholm, nådde allmänheten. Det konstaterades snabbt vara en terrorattack. Kort efter attacken började uppgifter om skottlossning på olika platser runt Stockholm att spridas. Ryktena cirkulerade i drygt en timme innan polisen kunde dementera dem, efter att ha avsatt resurser för att undersöka de påstådda skjutningarna. Skottlossning hade aldrig inträffat.

            Studiens syfte var att undersöka retoriska dimensioner och persuasiva funktioner hos fake news samt vilka konsekvenser fake news kan få vid en krissituation. Visuell retorisk analys var den metodologiska utgångspunkten som, genom en abduktiv forskningsstrategi, kombinerades med teoretiska perspektiv för kris, ethos, vividness och fake news. Analysmaterialet utgjordes av fyra nyhetsutdrag: SvT Nyheter, Dagens Nyheter (2 st.) och Expressen var källorna bakom dessa.

            Analysen visade att nyheterna om skottlossning mottogs som visuella intryck, som i kombination med starka ethos och högt förtroende för nyhetskällorna, utgjorde trovärdiga nyheter som allmänheten accepterade som sanna. Därtill konkluderades att fake news kan förstås som mentala bilder. 

Abstract [en]

Stockholm, 7th of April 2017, 2:59 pm, reports said a lorry had hit several people along the pedestrian street Drottninggatan in the city centre, which was quickly labelled a terrorist attack. Shortly afterwards, news flashes warned people of alleged open gunfire observed at several other spots in the city. The rumours circulated for over one hour before the Police were able to refute them, after firstly having investigated the claims themselves. There had been no shootings.

         The purpose of this study was to explore the rhetorical dimensions and persuasive functions of fake news and which consequences these can lead to in a crisis. Visual rhetorical analysis has been the methodological approach which, through an abductive research strategy, was combined with the theoretical perspectives of crisis, ethos, vividness and fake news. The material analysed consisted of four news excerpts: SvT Nyheter, Dagens Nyheter (2) and Expressen.

            The analysis showed that the news of the alleged gunfire were perceived as visual impressions which, in combination with strong ethos and high trust for the source of news, were deemed as credible and therefore true by the readers. In addition, it was concluded that fake news can be understood as mental pictures.                

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. , p. 37
Keywords [en]
Fake news, crisis, ethos, vividness, rhetoric, visual analysis
Keywords [sv]
Fake news, kris, ethos, vividness, retorik, visuell analys
National Category
Other Humanities not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-354370OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-354370DiVA, id: diva2:1221089
Subject / course
Rhetoric
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2018-06-20 Created: 2018-06-19 Last updated: 2018-06-20Bibliographically approved

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