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Svenska stadsplaner och stadsplaneideal genom tiden och dess koppling till politiken och juridiken
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
2018 (Swedish)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
Swedish Urban Plans and Ideals throughout Time and Their Connection to Politics and Law (English)
Abstract [sv]

De svenska städerna har genom tiderna planerats på olika sätt och olika visioner och mål har styrt städernas utformning. Under 1600-talet stod städernas handel i fokus och städerna planerades på ett schematiskt sätt med tullar i flera väderstreck. Städer som var viktiga för landets försvar utformades med befästningar i utkanterna. Under stormaktstiden anlade staten många nya städer, man anlade dem på strategiska lägen för försvar, styrning och administration. Under 1800-talet hade folk tröttnat på att de schematiska städerna brann ner och för att undvika det började man anlägga breda gator som skulle förhindra spridning över gata. Under 1800-talet började också järnvägar anläggas i många städer och stadsbefolkningen ökade. Fler offentliga byggnader byggdes i monumental stil och städerna gjordes representativa – järnvägen var stadens framsida och kvarteren runt järnvägen smyckades extra. Industrierna började på slutet av 1800-talet etablera sig i städerna och stadsbefolkningen ökade ytterligare – miljön blev väldigt dålig till följd. Förutom den dåliga miljön var trångboddhet och bostadsbrist ett stort problem. 1874 infördes en ny byggnadsstadga som kom att bli väldigt viktig. Under 1900-talet började staten ta större ansvar för det sociala och bostadspolitiken fick stort fokus. Staten ville lösa 1800-talets problem och genom en omfattande bostadspolitisk reform lyckades man med det. Lånesubventioner som satte krav på byggnadsutformningen, nya möjligheter att detaljreglera marken och en rationell stadsplanering gjorde att man 1970 hade byggt bort bostadsbristen, trångboddheten och höjt bostadsstandarden för hela den svenska befolkningen. Genom tiden har andra länder inspirerat och påverkat hur de politiska vindarna har blåst, hur stadsplanerarnas visioner har sett ut och hur regleringarna har utformats. Målet har alltid varit att skapa en god stad och lösa problemen som de tidigare idealen skapat. Krig, invandring, utvandring och ekonomiska kriser utom och inom Sverige har också skapat problem som behövt lösas genom politik, stadsplanering och regleringar.

Abstract [en]

The cities of Sweden have been planned differently during different times in history, following different methods, visions and goals for the cities. During the 17th century the main focus was on trading and therefore the cities were planned on the basis of that, resulting in a simple way with tolls around the city. Cities of great importance for the defence were equipped with fortification on the outskirts. Many cities were founded during this era, not spontaneously, but for defending and were therefore placed in strategic ways. The King had plans of expanding the kingdom and to be able to do so it would require cities for regulating and administrating purposes. During the 19th century people were tired of seeing the schematic cities burning down and to avoid that boulevards were laid to prevent fires from spreading. It was also during this period that railways were laid in many cities. More and more public buildings were built in a monumental style and the cities were made representative – railroads would serve as the front of the city and the neighbourhoods surrounding the railroad would be adorned with lavish designs. Furthermore, industries were established during this time consequently leading to a larger population and also a degraded environment.  During the 20th century the government started taking a larger responsibility for social and housing policies. The government wanted to solve the problems of the previous century and was able to do so after implementing extensive reforms. Subsidized loans implemented by the government putting constraints on building designs, new opportunities of detail control and a rational urban planning made it possible to eradicate most of the problems encountered during the 19th century by the mid-1900s and thereby raising the standard of housing. During the ages other countries have inspired and affected the political situation and also the visions of urban planners resulting in the way regulations have been designed. The goal has always been to create a good city. Wars, immigration, emigration and economic crises within and outside of Sweden have also been causes of issues that have been solved through politics, urban planning and regulations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. , p. 54
Series
TRITA-ABE-MBT ; 18164
Keywords [en]
Urban Planning, City Planning, Town Planning, Urban History, Urban Politics, Urban Design
Keywords [sv]
Stadsplaner, Stadsplanering, Stadsplanedesign, Stadsplanehistoria, Byggnadsstadgor, Stadsplanelag
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-230928OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-230928DiVA, id: diva2:1220358
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2018-07-02 Created: 2018-06-18 Last updated: 2018-07-02Bibliographically approved

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