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Relatedness through kinship: the importance of family co-occurrence for firm performance
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7179-347X
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of the thesis is to analyse the effects of family co-occurrence and past familial relationships (inherited entrepreneurial abilities) on firm performance. This aim is motivated by the contemporary arguments that social relations (e.g. family ties) are important in the analysis of today’s space economy. In most studies, the point of departure in the analysis of firm performance has often been to analyse and examine the cognitive resources available in a firm, as well as a firm’s geographical closeness to related firms and industries. However, this argument has been challenged, and it is further suggested that social relations, and for that matter family relations (or family co-occurrence), may be important in the analysis of firm performance. To test this argument, the analysis is based on longitudinal data comprising various register data on the Swedish population and firms.

To examine the aim, three different but related questions were analysed: the first analysed the prevalence of family employment across different regions and how this affects firm performance; the second examined the relationship between entrepreneurs’ familial relations (co-occurrence of different family relations) and skill variety, on one hand, and how the relationship affects firm performance on the other; and the third examined the effects of present family relations (family firms) and entrepreneurial capital (EC, past family relations) on the survival and growth of new entrants. Questions 1 and 2 were explored by applying simple ordinary least squares (OLS) and fixed effects (FE) regressions, respectively. Question 3 was explored by employing an event-history analysis (survival analysis) to determine the time to exit and OLS for the growth analysis.

The results show that family co-occurrence in firms (be they family or non-family firms) positively affect labour productivity. At the same time, the results show that some specific family relationships are more important than others in terms of impacting labour productivity. Moreover, the results indicate that family firms, in particular, benefit the most from having family members employed in the firm, especially when this involves family relationships such as couples and/or children. The co-occurrence of couples and/or children in family firms moderates the negative impacts of similarities and unrelatedness of skills on productivity. The results show that the impacts of family co-occurrence are greater in smaller specialized regions than diverse and larger ones. Thus, while the family positively correlates with firm performance, this is mainly the case in specialized regions. The results further show that family firms are not more resilient, as the literature argues; but this effect is confounded by EC. The implication is that it is not family firms per se that are resilient but rather firms with entrepreneurial experience from parents, especially in rural regions; meanwhile, family firms create more jobs. However, the analysis could not identify a clear regional effect of the role of family firm on job creation. In this sense, the present thesis provides important insight into why the family constitutes an important part of the firm production setup. The findings show that it is necessary and important to consider the family, and family firms, in the larger regional development framework. Moreover, while reflecting on the uniqueness of the family as a social group whose shared identity and mutual trust can enhance firm performance and regional development, we should also not lose sight of the fact that there is a latent risk: it is not a problem—until it becomes a problem.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå University , 2018. , p. 77
Series
GERUM, ISSN 1402-5205 ; 2018:1
Keywords [en]
proximity dimension, agglomeration economies, family, family co-occurrence, family firm, region, firm performance, regional development, entrepreneurial capital, localized learning, Sweden
National Category
Human Geography
Research subject
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-144587ISBN: 978-91-7601-839-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-144587DiVA, id: diva2:1186131
Public defence
2018-03-28, Hörsal B, Samhällsvetarhuset, Umeå, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-03-07 Created: 2018-02-27 Last updated: 2018-06-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Social proximity and firm performance: the importance of family member ties in workplaces
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social proximity and firm performance: the importance of family member ties in workplaces
2016 (English)In: Regional Studies, Regional Science, ISSN 0080-0694, E-ISSN 2168-1376, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 303-319Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study empirically assesses the role of social proximity, defined as the concentration of family members (FM) in firms, on firm performance. Based on longitudinal micro-data for the period 1995–2010 connecting information on workers and their workplaces in the Swedish labour market, the effects of FM (parents, children, siblings and grandparents) on per capita productivity in 15,359 firms were analysed. The results indicate that FM positively affect firm performance. In particular, the results suggest that in specialized regions (mainly small regions) FM have a positive influence on performance and can thus compensate for relative shortage of regional agglomeration economies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2016
Keywords
social proximity, family members, agglomeration, regional size, specialization, firm performance
National Category
Economic Geography
Research subject
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-122009 (URN)10.1080/21681376.2016.1189354 (DOI)2-s2.0-85009285095 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P13–1044:1
Available from: 2016-06-14 Created: 2016-06-14 Last updated: 2018-06-07Bibliographically approved
2. Familial relationships and firm performance: the impact of entrepreneurial family relationships
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Familial relationships and firm performance: the impact of entrepreneurial family relationships
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

While the family may serve as a resource for an entrepreneur, little is known about how different forms of entrepreneurial family relationships facilitate firm performance. Using longitudinal data (2002-2012) on a sample of privately owned firms with up to 50 employees with matched information on all employees, the present paper aims to analyse the impact of entrepreneurial family relationships on productivity. The fixed effects (FE) estimates reveal that entrepreneurial family relationships do affect firm performance. However, this effect is dependent on the type of family relationship and the type of human capital present in the firm. The paper thus contributes new knowledge regarding not only whether family relationships matter for performance, but also in what way they matter.

Keywords
entrepreneur, family relationships, trust, skill variety, firm performance
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Research subject
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-143913 (URN)
Available from: 2018-02-07 Created: 2018-02-07 Last updated: 2018-06-09
3. Family firm and entrepreneurial capital: the importance of entrepreneurial capital for firm survival and growth
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Family firm and entrepreneurial capital: the importance of entrepreneurial capital for firm survival and growth
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

We examined the effects of current (family firms) and past family relations (entrepreneurial capital (EC) -inherited entrepreneurial practices from self-employed parents)on the survival and growth of new entrants, taking into account the regional context and the effects of the 2008 global financial crisis. Moreover, we examined whether familial relations also contribute to job creation. The guiding assumption is that the role of familial relations for start-ups is of primary importance for spatial variations of economic development. Using start-ups with a maximum of 50 employees in 2002 in Sweden, we followed each firm until the firm exited. The results indicate that the resilience of family firms is confounded by EC. Hence, it is not family firms per se that are more resilient but rather firms with entrepreneurial experience from self-employed parents; however, it is family firms that create more jobs. The results further indicate that the impacts of EC are predominantly found in rural regions. The analyses suggest that family firms and EC explain different aspects of the local economic development, which is a finding important for policy-making.

Keywords
family firm, entrepreneurial capital (EC), survival, employment growth, regional developmen
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Research subject
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-143914 (URN)
Available from: 2018-02-07 Created: 2018-02-07 Last updated: 2018-06-09

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