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Tyre-road Interaction: a holistic approach to noise and rolling resistance
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials. VTI.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8057-6031
2018 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Energy dissipation, fuel consumption, real-estate property prices and health issues are some of the aspects related to the tyre/pavement interaction and its functional properties of rolling resistance and noise. The first two aspects are affected by the tyre/road interaction as energy is dissipated mostly by hysteretic losses as the tyre is subjected to dynamic deformations when contacting the pavement surface. The other effect of this contact system that is analysed in this thesis is noise. Excessive noise exposure leads to a decrease in real-estate property values and even health issues such as increased blood pressure, sleep disturbance, cognitive impairment in children, among others.

To mitigate such issues, a good understanding of the underlying causes is crucial and therefore a holistic approach was used to analyse the contact interaction in a more comprehensive way, encompassing the pavement, tyre, environmental and contact media (contaminations). Both noise and rolling resistance were analysed after subjecting the contact system to controlled interventions in one variable while maintaining the other variables constant and then comparing to a reference condition. In the first part of the investigative work, different tyres were tested while maintaining the pavement, environment and contact media constant, allowing an evaluation of the impact of winter tyres on noise and rolling resistance. In the second part, an intervention in the pavement was applied while maintaining the other variables constant. allowing an evaluation of the impact of surface grinding on noise and rolling resistance.

The first part quantified how noisier studded tyres are in comparison to non-studded tyres, yet no substantial difference in rolling resistance was found. The second part revealed the potential of the horizontal grinding to reduce noise and rolling resistance, having a limitation, on the duration of such effects, especially for Swedish roads where studded tyres are used.

Abstract [sv]

Energiförluster, bränsleförbrukning, fastighetspriser och hälsoproblem är några av de effekter som följer av däckens interaktion med vägytan och som relaterar till de funktionella egenskaperna för rullmotstånd och buller. De första två effekterna uppkommer av väg- och däckinteraktionen eftersom energi förbrukas mestadels genom hysteresförluster när däcken utsätts för dynamiska deformationer vid kontakt med vägytan. Den andra effekten av däck/vägkontakten som analyseras i avhandlingen är buller. Alltför hög bullerexponering intill boendemiljöer leder till minskning av fastighetspriser och även till hälsoproblem såsom ökat blodtryck, sömnstörning, kognitiv försämring hos barn, med mera.

För att mildra sådana problem, är det avgörande att ha en god förståelse av de bakomliggande orsakerna, och därför används här ett helhetsgrepp för att genomföra en mer omfattande analys av interaktionen. Analysen inkluderar egenskaper hos vägytan, däcken, omgivande miljö samt kontaktmedier (förorenande skikt).. Både buller och rullmotstånd har analyserats efter att på ett kontrollerat sätt ha varierat en viss variabel medan de andra variablerna hållits konstanta, och sedan jämföra resultaten med referensförhållandet. I den första delen av denna undersökning provades flera olika däck medan vägytan, miljö- och kontaktmedier hölls konstanta. Detta möjliggjorde en utvärdering av effekterna av olika vinterdäck på rullmotstånd och buller. I den andra delen beskrivs effekter av en förändring av vägytan, utförd genom att slipa bort topparna i vägtexturen, medan de andra variablerna hålls konstanta..

Den första delen kvantifierar bullerökningen vid användning av dubbdäck i jämförelse med odubbade vinterdäck. Några betydande skillnader i rullmotstånd hittades däremot inte mellan de två däckgrupperna. Den andra delen av texten visar på potentialen av horisontell slipning för att minska buller och rullmotstånd, dock är varaktigheten begränsad; särskilt för svenska vägar där dubbdäck används.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Kungliga Tekniska högskolan, 2018. , p. 142
Series
TRITA-ABE-DLT ; 1802002
Keywords [en]
pavement, surface, texture, noise, rolling resistance, tyre
Keywords [sv]
Vägbeläggning, vägyta, textur, buller, rullmotstånd, däck
National Category
Civil Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-222475ISBN: 978-91-7729-697-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-222475DiVA, id: diva2:1182108
Presentation
2018-03-08, B1, Brinellvägen 23, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Note

QC 20180212

Available from: 2018-02-12 Created: 2018-02-12 Last updated: 2018-02-14Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Noise and Rolling Resistance Properties of Various Types of Winter Tyres Compared to Normal Car Tyres
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Noise and Rolling Resistance Properties of Various Types of Winter Tyres Compared to Normal Car Tyres
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the Inter-Noise 2016, German Acoustical Society (DEGA) , 2016, p. 1737-1746Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

To cope with winter weather conditions, potentially including snow and ice, it is common to use winter tyres, or "all-seasons" tyres assumed to be safe both in summer and winter. In some northern countries, winter tyres are mandatory. It is commonly assumed that winter tyres are noisier than normal tyres (here called summer tyres) and winter tyres equipped with studs are assumed to be extra noisy. This paper presents a study where noise and rolling resistance properties of tyres for winter conditions are compared to summer and all-season tyres. The winter tyres include types optimized for central European climate, tyres optimized for Nordic climate and tyres with studs. In total, approx. 50 car tyres have been tested. Noise properties have been measured with the CPX method and rolling resistance has been measured with a trailer method; all measurements made on two road surfaces; SMA 8 and DAC 16. Results indicate that winter tyres are not noisier than summer tyres; except for studded tyres. Despite high differences among individual tyres, rolling resistance is approximately similar among the main types; surprisingly including also studded tyres. An alarming result was that there was no correlation between measured values and values on the tyre labels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
German Acoustical Society (DEGA), 2016
Keywords
tyre, winter, climate, stud, noise, rolling resistance, tyre label
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-222147 (URN)2-s2.0-84994571118 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Proceedings of the Inter-Noise 2016, Hamburg; Germany; 21 August 2016 through 24 August 2016
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Note

QC 20180201

Available from: 2018-02-01 Created: 2018-02-01 Last updated: 2018-02-14Bibliographically approved
2. Acoustical performance of winter tyres on two in-service road surfaces: a frequency spectrum analysis and comparison
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acoustical performance of winter tyres on two in-service road surfaces: a frequency spectrum analysis and comparison
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the Inter-Noise 2017, Hong Kong, 2017, p. 6825-6836Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hong Kong: , 2017
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-222450 (URN)
Conference
Inter-Noise
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Note

QC 20180212

Available from: 2018-02-09 Created: 2018-02-09 Last updated: 2018-02-12Bibliographically approved
3. Negative Texture, Positive for the Environment: Results of Horizontal Grinding of Asphalt Pavements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Negative Texture, Positive for the Environment: Results of Horizontal Grinding of Asphalt Pavements
2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A pavement surface having its texture deflections mostly directed downwards is said to have a “negative texture” and is expected to result in positive tire/road noise and rolling resistance properties. Negative textures are typical of porous asphalt pavements, but another way to achieve this is to grind-off the top of the asperities of a rough-textured surface. This paper explores the application of grinding pavement texture by tools operating in the horizontal plane (not to be confused with common “diamond grinding” which is made by tools operating in the vertical plane) on a number of asphalt pavements in Sweden, including porous asphalt and stone matrix asphalt. Noise measurements with the Close Proximity method were carried out to evaluate the different acoustical performance of the ground and the original surfaces. In most cases, also tire/road rolling resistance was measured. Texture and wet friction measurements were carried out to characterize how the grinding operation changed the surface texture. It was demonstrated that the grinding treatment led to a more negatively skewed surface texture, resulting in an A-weighted noise reduction up to 3 dB, while rolling resistance coefficients were reduced by up to 15 %. It is concluded that horizontal grinding indeed creates more “negative textures”, which results in improved noise and rolling resistance properties without sacrificing friction, though with limited longevity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington, D.C., USA: , 2018
Keywords
pavement, texture, grinding, noise, rolling resistance
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-222134 (URN)
Conference
Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting 2018
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Note

QC 20180212

Available from: 2018-02-01 Created: 2018-02-01 Last updated: 2018-02-14Bibliographically approved

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