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Towards Unconventional Applications of Wire Bonding
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems. SenseAir AB.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8853-0967
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents novel heterogeneous integration approaches of wire materials to fabricated and package MEMS devices by exploring unconventional applications of wire bonding technology. Wire bonding, traditionally endemic in the realm of device packaging to establish electrical die-to-package interconnections, is an attractive back-end technology, offering promising features, such as high throughput, flexibility and placement accuracy. Exploiting the advantages of state-of-the-art wire bonding technology and substitute the conventional micro welding approach with an innovative attachment concept, a generic integration platform for a multitude of wire materials is provided. This facilitates a cost-efficient and selective integration, which involves the attachment and shaping of a variety of intrinsically non-bondable wire materials. Furthermore, the selective integration of wire materials provides a simple method to generate complex suspended geometries, which circumvents the need for subsequent processing. The first part of this thesis reports of the integration of non-bondable shape memory alloy wires on wafer-level, which has led to an innovative method to fabricate micro actuators. Moreover, the integration of high performance resistive heating wires on chip-level is utilized to fabricate filament based infrared emitters, targeting non-dispersive infrared gas sensing of alcohol for automotive applications. In the second part, a series of unconventional applications of wire integration using the traditional thermo-sonic wire bonding approach is presented. A novel and low-cost nitric oxide gas sensor is realized by producing vertical bond wires featuring high aspect ratio. Next, the high placement accuracy of wire bonding tools is leveraged to integrate conductive metals cores for fabricating high aspect ratio through silicon vias. Finally, an advanced packaging approach for stress-sensitive MEMS gyroscopes is evaluated, which exclusively utilizes bond wires for realizing the die attachment.

Abstract [sv]

Denna avhandling presenterar nya integrationsmetoder av trådmaterial för tillverkning och kapsling av mikro-elektromekaniska system (MEMS), genom att undersöka okonventionella tillämpningar av trådbondningsteknik.Trådbondning används traditionellt för att skapa elektrisk kontakt mellan chip och kapsel i integrerade kretsar. Det är en etablerad back-end teknologi med fördelar som hög hastighet, flexibilitet och placeringsnoggrannhet. Genom att utnyttja fördelarna hos toppmodern trådbondningsteknik och ersätta konventionell mikrosvetsning med ett innovativt koncept för att fästa tråden, tillhandahålls en generisk integrationsplattform för en mängd olika trådmaterial. Detta tillåter en kostnadseffektiv och selektiv integrering vilken består av fixering och formning av en rad icke-bondbara trådmaterial. Vidare ger den selektiva integrationen av trådmaterial en enkel metod för att generera komplexa suspenderade geometrier, som gör efterföljande bearbetning överflödig.Den första delen av avhandlingen beskriver integration av icke-bondbar minnesmetall på kiselskivor, som möjliggjort en innovativ metod för att tillverka mikroaktuatorer. Dessutom används integration av högkvalitativa resistiva trådar på chip-nivå för att tillverka filamentbaserade infraröda emittrar, ämnade för gasmätning av alkohol i fordon. I andra delen presenteras en serie av okonventionella tillämpningar av trådintegration med användning av den traditionella termo-soniska trådbondningsmetoden. En ny och billig kväveoxidgassensor tillverkades genom att producera vertikala bondtrådar på chip. Den exakta placeringsnoggrannheten hos trådbondningsverktyget används för att integrera metallkärnor som skapar en elektrisk kontakt genom kisel. Slutligen utvärderas en avancerad fixering av stresskänsliga MEMS-gyroskop i kapsel, vilket uteslutande utnyttjar bindningstrådar.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. , p. 92
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2018:8
Keywords [en]
Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), heterogeneous 3D integration, wire bonding, wire integration, transfer wafer bonding, nondispersive infrared gas sensing, low-stress packaging, shape memory alloy (SMA), infrared (IR) emitter, through silicon via (TSV), ethanol sensing, nitric oxide gas sensing, wafer-level, chip-level, Kanthal, nickel chromium (NiCr)
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-222346ISBN: 978-91-7729-673-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-222346DiVA, id: diva2:1180897
Public defence
2018-03-02, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
EU, European Research Council, 277879VINNOVA, 2015-00402
Note

QC 20180207

Available from: 2018-02-07 Created: 2018-02-07 Last updated: 2018-02-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Wire-bonder-assisted integration of non-bondable SMA wires into MEMS substrates
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wire-bonder-assisted integration of non-bondable SMA wires into MEMS substrates
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2012 (English)In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 055025-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper reports on a novel technique for the integration of NiTi shape memory alloy wires and other non-bondable wire materials into silicon-based microelectromechanical system structures using a standard wire-bonding tool. The efficient placement and alignment functions of the wire-bonding tool are used to mechanically attach the wire to deep-etched silicon anchoring and clamping structures. This approach enables a reliable and accurate integration of wire materials that cannot be wire bonded by traditional means.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2012
Keywords
Bonding, Electromechanical devices, Integration, MEMS
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-90858 (URN)10.1088/0960-1317/22/5/055025 (DOI)000303197000025 ()2-s2.0-84860433128 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, European Research Council, 267528 277879
Note
QC 20120528Available from: 2012-04-20 Created: 2012-03-01 Last updated: 2018-02-07Bibliographically approved
2. Fabrication of an Infrared Emitter using a Generic Integration Platform Based on Wire Bonding
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fabrication of an Infrared Emitter using a Generic Integration Platform Based on Wire Bonding
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 26, no 11, article id 115010Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper reports a novel approach for the fabrication of infrared (IR)emitters for non-dispersive infrared gas sensing. The proposed concept enables theintegration of superior resistive heater materials with microelectromechanical systems(MEMS) structures. In this study, non-bondable filaments made of nickel chromium areattached to mechanical attachment structures using a fully automated state-of-the-artwire bonder. The formation of the electrical contacts between the integrated filamentsand the electrical contact pattern on the substrate is performed using conventionalgold stud bumping technology. The placement accuracy of the integrated filamentsis evaluated using white-light interferometry, while the contact formation using studbumping to embed the filaments is investigated using focus ion beam milled crosssections.A proof-of-concept IR emitter has been successfully operated and heated upto 960 C in continuous mode for 3 hours.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2016
Keywords
wire bonding, integration platform, stud bumping, non-bondable materials, IR emitter, MEMS-based infrared emitter, NDIR gas sensing
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-194248 (URN)10.1088/0960-1317/26/11/115010 (DOI)000385931300003 ()2-s2.0-84993982778 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, European Research Council, 277879Swedish Research Council, 621-2011-4437VINNOVA, 2015-00402
Note

QC 20161121

Available from: 2016-10-21 Created: 2016-10-21 Last updated: 2018-02-07Bibliographically approved
3. A Large-Area Single-Filament Infrared Emitter for Spectroscopic Gas Sensing of Ethanol
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Large-Area Single-Filament Infrared Emitter for Spectroscopic Gas Sensing of Ethanol
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Non-dispersive infrared spectroscopy is a promising technology for highly-accurate and maintenance-free gas sensing of ethanol. However, non-dispersive infrared sensor systems are currently too expensive for many application areas such as consumer and automotive applications. The infrared emitter is a critical and relatively costly component in today’s non-dispersive infrared systems. Here we report on a low-cost large-area single filament infrared emitter that is viable for non-dispersive infrared gas spectroscopy systems with small dimensions. The proposed infrared emitter is based on joule heating of a Kanthal filament and provides a broadband emission spectrum suitable for non-dispersive infrared gas sensing. Placement and attachment of the filament on the substrate is performed using a conventional high-speed automated wire bonding tool. Our fabrication approach enables simple and rapid rendering of a large meander-shaped emitter filament. Operation and performance of the fabricated infrared emitters were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to analyse the effective infrared emission spectrum relevant for non-dispersive infrared gas sensing. Thermal properties such as temperature distribution across the infrared emitter was investigated. To demonstrate the viability of the meander-shaped infrared emitter for non-dispersive infrared gas sensing, the IR emitter was implemented in a non-dispersive infrared gas sensor system and the detection of varying ethanol concentrations as well as the detection of elevated breath alcohol concentration levels was demonstrated.

Keywords
Infrared (IR) emitter, wire bonding, wire integration platform, non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) gas 27 sensing, spectroscopic gas sensing, alcohol breath analyser
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-222361 (URN)
Note

QC 20180207

Available from: 2018-02-07 Created: 2018-02-07 Last updated: 2018-02-07Bibliographically approved
4. Stress-minimized packaging of inertial sensors using wire bonding
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stress-minimized packaging of inertial sensors using wire bonding
Show others...
2013 (English)In: 2013 Transducers & Eurosensors XXVII: The 17th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (TRANSDUCERS & EUROSENSORS XXVII), IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. 1962-1965Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a packaging approach for inertial sensors using wire bonding technology. The die is mounted exclusively by bond wires on the front- and backside to the package. Conventional single-side die attach to substrates, such as gluing, is abandoned. The approach is characterized by its novel and symmetric die attach concept as well as its simplicity of applying a standard wire bonding process. The wire bond attachment facilitates significant reduction of thermally induced mechanical stresses. The attachment concept is characterized in terms of attachment stiffness and potential die resonances using Laser Doppler Vibrometry(LDV). White-light interferometry is used to investigate stress related warping that is induced by the die attachment process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2013
Keywords
Low-stress, die attach, wire bonding, inertial sensors, Laser Doppler Vibrometry, white-light interferometry, packaging
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-129738 (URN)10.1109/Transducers.2013.6627179 (DOI)2-s2.0-84891708939 (Scopus ID)978-1-4673-5983-2 (ISBN)
Conference
2013 17th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, TRANSDUCERS and EUROSENSORS 2013; Barcelona; Spain; 16 June 2013 through 20 June 2013
Note

QC 20131030

Available from: 2013-10-04 Created: 2013-10-04 Last updated: 2018-02-07Bibliographically approved
5. Adhesive wafer bonding with ultra-thin intermediate polymer layers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adhesive wafer bonding with ultra-thin intermediate polymer layers
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2017 (English)In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 260, p. 16-23Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Wafer bonding methods with ultra-thin intermediate bonding layers are critically important in heterogeneous 3D integration technologies for many NEMS and photonic device applications. A promising wafer bonding approach for 3D integration is adhesive bonding. So far however, adhesive bonding processes relied on relatively thick intermediate adhesive layers. In this paper, we present an adhesive wafer bonding process using an ultra-thin intermediate adhesive layer with sub-200 nm thickness. We demonstrate adhesive bonding of silicon wafers with a near perfect bonding yield of >99% and achieve less than ±10% non-uniformity of the intermediate layer thickness across an entire 100 mm-diameter wafer. A bond strength of 4.8 MPa was measured for our polymer adhesive, which is considerably higher than previously reported for other ultra-thin film adhesives. Additionally, the adhesive polymer used in the proposed method features excellent chemical and mechanical stability. We also report on a potential strategy for mitigating the formation of micro-voids in the polymer adhesive at the bond interface. Furthermore, the polymer adhesive can be sacrificially removed by oxygen plasma etching for both isotropic and anisotropic release etching. The characteristics of the adhesive wafer bonding process and its compatibility with CMOS wafers, makes it very attractive for heterogeneous 3D integration processes targeted at CMOS-integrated NEMS and photonic devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Adhesive wafer bonding; Ultra-thin bonding layer; 3D integration; MEMS; NEMS; Photonics
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-206163 (URN)10.1016/j.sna.2017.04.018 (DOI)000402358200003 ()2-s2.0-85017612515 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170502

Available from: 2017-04-27 Created: 2017-04-27 Last updated: 2018-04-05Bibliographically approved
6. Wafer-level integration of NiTi shape memory alloy wires for the fabrication of microactuators using standard wire bonding technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wafer-level integration of NiTi shape memory alloy wires for the fabrication of microactuators using standard wire bonding technology
Show others...
2011 (English)In: 24th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), 2011 IEEE, IEEE , 2011, p. 348-351Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper reports on the first integration of SMA wires into silicon based MEMS structures using a standard wire bonder. This approach allows fast and efficient placement, alignment and mechanical attachment of NiTi-based SMA wires to silicon-based MEMS. The wires are mechanically anchored and clamped into deep-etched silicon structures on a wafer. The placement precision is high with an average deviation of 4 #x03BC;m and the mechanical clamping is strong, allowing successful actuation of the SMA wires.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2011
Series
Proceedings: IEEE micro electro mechanical systems, ISSN 1084-6999
Keywords
MEMS structures;NiTi;SMA wires;deep-etched silicon structures;mechanical clamping;microactuator fabrication;shape memory alloy wire;size 4 mum;standard wire bonding technology;wafer-level integration;etching;lead bonding;microactuators;nickel compounds;wafer level packaging;
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-47428 (URN)10.1109/MEMSYS.2011.5734433 (DOI)000295841200086 ()2-s2.0-79953794837 (Scopus ID)
Conference
24th International Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS), 2011 IEEE
Note
© 2011 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.QC 20111110Available from: 2011-11-18 Created: 2011-11-09 Last updated: 2018-02-07Bibliographically approved
7. Very high aspect ratio through silicon vias (TSVs) using wire bonding
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Very high aspect ratio through silicon vias (TSVs) using wire bonding
2013 (English)In: Transducers & Eurosensors XXVII: The 17th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (TRANSDUCERS & EUROSENSORS XXVII), 2013, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. 167-170Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper reports a fabrication approach for very high aspect ratio through silicon vias (TSVs). The metal filling of the through via holes is implemented by adapting standard wire bonding technology. TSVs with a diameter of 30 μm and aspect ratios between 10:1 and 20:1 have been fabricated. Basic electrical characterization and optical inspection have been conducted to verify the resistance and integrity of the metal and insulator filling of the TSV.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2013
Keywords
Metal through silicon vias, TSVs, high aspect ratio, wire bonding
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-129737 (URN)10.1109/Transducers.2013.6626728 (DOI)2-s2.0-84891667875 (Scopus ID)978-1-4673-5983-2 (ISBN)
Conference
2013 17th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, TRANSDUCERS and EUROSENSORS 2013; Barcelona; Spain; 16 June 2013 through 20 June 2013
Note

QC 20131007

Available from: 2013-10-04 Created: 2013-10-04 Last updated: 2018-02-07Bibliographically approved
8. Stress-Minimized Packaging of Inertial Sensors by Double-Sided Bond Wire Attachment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stress-Minimized Packaging of Inertial Sensors by Double-Sided Bond Wire Attachment
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Journal of microelectromechanical systems, ISSN 1057-7157, E-ISSN 1941-0158, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 781-789Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a novel approach for low-stress packaging of microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based gyroscopes. The proposed approach makes use of conventional ball-stitch wire bonding. The gyroscope die is attached exclusively by means of bond wire connections between the package frame, and the top and bottom surfaces of the die. The process enables the electrical connection of metal pads on the top and the bottom side of the MEMS die within the same process. No adhesives, glue, or solder is used for the die attach. The stiffness of the proposed die attach is evaluated by scanning laser Doppler vibrometry. White-light interferometry is used to investigate stress in the die that is induced by the die attach. The bond wire attachment is compared with conventional single-sided die attach using two types of commercially available adhesives. It was found that the proposed packaging system exhibits multiple resonance modes and displays a dependence on the amount of bond wires. White-light interferometry reveals a centered bow across the die and shows low-induced stresses compared with conventionally attached dies using epoxy adhesives.

Keywords
Low-stress die attach, wire bonding, inertial sensors, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), laser Doppler vibrometry, white-light interferometry, packaging, gyroscope
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-173152 (URN)10.1109/JMEMS.2015.2439042 (DOI)000358952600004 ()2-s2.0-84938562979 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, European Research Council, 277879
Note

QC 20150917

Available from: 2015-09-17 Created: 2015-09-07 Last updated: 2018-02-07Bibliographically approved
9. A single wire large-area filament emitter for spectroscopic ethanol gas sensing fabricated using a wire bonding tool
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A single wire large-area filament emitter for spectroscopic ethanol gas sensing fabricated using a wire bonding tool
2017 (English)In: TRANSDUCERS 2017 - 19th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, IEEE, 2017, p. 315-318, article id 7994052Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) gas spectroscopy is a highly accurate optical gas sensing technology, which has been implemented in various industrial applications. However NDIR systems remain too expensive for many consumer and automotive apphcations. The cost of the infrared (IR) emitter component is a substantial part of the total system cost. In this paper we report of a single filament IR emitter that is fabricated using wire bonding technology. Our fabrication approach offers the prospect of a fully automated assembly by means of utihzing a wire bonding tool to integrate the single filament to the MEMS structured silicon substrate. An apphcation-specific wire bond trajectory enables the mechanical attachment of the filament to form the meander-shaped emitter with a total area of 1 mm2. The fabricated IR emitter utilizes a Kanthal (FeCrAl) filament with very high thermal stability and excellent emitting properties under atmospheric conditions. The packaged IR emitter has been characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to study the emitted IR spectrum with respect to the requirements of NDIR systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
Keywords
NDIR, non-dispersive infrared gas sensing, ethanol gas sensing, breath alcohol sensing, infrared emitter, wire bonding, non-bondable wire materials, integration platform, Kanthal filament
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-214450 (URN)10.1109/TRANSDUCERS.2017.7994052 (DOI)000426701400080 ()2-s2.0-85029362985 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-2732-7 (ISBN)
Conference
19th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, TRANSDUCERS 2017, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 18 June 2017 through 22 June 2017
Funder
EU, European Research Council, 277879Swedish Research Council, 621-2011-4437VINNOVA, 2015-00402
Note

QC 20171211

Available from: 2017-09-14 Created: 2017-09-14 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
10. A low-cost nitric oxide gas sensor based on bonded gold wires
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A low-cost nitric oxide gas sensor based on bonded gold wires
Show others...
2017 (English)In: TRANSDUCERS 2017 - 19th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 1457-1460, article id 7994334Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we report of a novel and very simple fabrication method for realizing amperometric gas sensors using conventional wire bonding technology. Working and counter electrodes are made of 360 vertically standing bond wires, entirely manufactured by a fully automated, standard wire bonding tool. Our process enables standing bond wires with a length of 1.24 mm, resulting in an extremely high aspect-ratio of 50, thus effectively increasing the surface area of the working electrode. All gas sensor electrodes are embedded in a polymer-based, solid electrolyte. Therefore, laborious handling of liquid electrolytes can be avoided. Here, we report of a nitric oxide (NO) gas sensor that is capable of detecting NO gas concentrations down to the single-digit ppm range. The proposed approach demonstrates the feasibility towards a scalable and entire back-end fabrication concept for low-cost NO gas sensors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-214452 (URN)10.1109/TRANSDUCERS.2017.7994334 (DOI)000426701400362 ()2-s2.0-85029388567 (Scopus ID)9781538627310 (ISBN)
Conference
19th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems, TRANSDUCERS 2017, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 18 June 2017 through 22 June 2017
Note

QC 20171211

Available from: 2017-09-14 Created: 2017-09-14 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved

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