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Substantial difference in target surface chemistry between reactive dc and high power impulse magnetron sputtering
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4898-5115
Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2837-3656
2018 (English)In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 51, no 5, article id 05LT01Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The nitride layer formed in the target race track during the deposition of stoichiometric TiN thin films is a factor 2.5 thicker for high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), compared to conventional dc processing (DCMS). The phenomenon is explained using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the as-operated Ti target surface chemistry supported by sputter depth profiles, dynamic Monte Carlo simulations employing the TRIDYN code, and plasma chemical investigations by ion mass spectrometry. The target chemistry and the thickness of the nitride layer are found to be determined by the implantation of nitrogen ions, predominantly N+ and N-2(+) for HIPIMS and DCMS, respectively. Knowledge of this method-inherent difference enables robust processing of high quality functional coatings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP PUBLISHING LTD , 2018. Vol. 51, no 5, article id 05LT01
Keywords [en]
HIPIMS; HPPMS; TiN; XPS; magnetron sputtering; target poisoning; target chemistry
National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-144547DOI: 10.1088/1361-6463/aaa0eeISI: 000422752300001OAI: oai:DiVA.org:liu-144547DiVA, id: diva2:1178310
Note

Funding Agencies|German Research Foundation (DFG) [SFB-TR 87]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation Scholar [KAW2016.0358]; VINN Excellence Center Functional Nanoscale Materials (FunMat-2) [2016-05156]; Aforsk Foundation [16-359]; Carl Tryggers Stiftelse [CTS 15:219, CTS 14:431]

Available from: 2018-01-29 Created: 2018-01-29 Last updated: 2018-02-21

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