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Icke-farmakologiska interventioner för att minska preoperativ ångest hos vuxna patienter: en litteraturöversikt
Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College, Department of Health Care Sciences.
2017 (Swedish)Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
Non-pharmacological interventions for reducing the preoperative anxiety in adult patients : a literature review (English)
Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund: Forskning tyder på att preoperativ ångest utgör ett vanligt förekommande problem hos patienter som skall genomgå kirurgi. Flera studier visade att den kan leda till olika postoperativa komplikationer. Det är sjuksköterskans ansvar att både identifiera och åtgärda ångest inför ett kirurgiskt ingrepp.

Syfte: Att beskriva vilka icke-farmakologiska interventioner finns för att minska preoperativ ångest hos vuxna patienter.

Metod: Studiens design var en litteraturöversikt som genomfördes enligt Fribergs metodbeskrivning. Litteraturöversikten bygger på tolv kvantitativa studier publicerade mellan 01/2007 och 09/2017. Sökningar utfördes i databaserna CINAHL Complete och PubMed.

Resultat: Denna litteraturöversikt tyder på att det finns flera, olika interventioner som kan användas som komplement till farmakologisk behandling för att effektivt minska preoperativ ångest hos vuxna patienter. Ångest i den preoperativa fasen kan lindras om patienten får en utökad, individuell anpassad information. Ångest kan också minskas om patienten får ett känslomässigt stöd eller hjälp med att finna tröst i andlighet/religion. Litteraturöversiktens resultat tyder dessutom på att ångestnivå kan sänkas med hjälp av en lugn musik, naturljud eller vägledd dagdröm. Det framkom även att den preoperativa ångesten kan minskas genom avslappningsövningar, aromaterapi, akupunktur och zonterapi. Endast en fotografisk utställning har inte visats vara effektiv för att minska ångest i det preoperativa skedet.

Diskussion: Resultatet av litteraturöversikten har diskuterats i relation till sjuksköterskans ansvarsområde. Resultatdiskussionen koncentreras kring praktiska frågor gällande implementering av de icke-farmakologiska metoderna i vården. Jean Watsons teori om mänsklig omsorg utgjorde översiktens teoretiska referensram som hjälpte författaren i resultatdiskussionen.

Abstract [en]

Background: Research indicates that preoperative anxiety is a widespread problem among patients undergoing surgery. It has been shown in several studies that preoperative anxiety may lead to different postoperative complications. It is the nurse's responsibility to identify and to reduce patients' anxiety.

Aim: To describe which non-pharmacological interventions are available to reduce preoperative anxiety in adult patients.

Method: The study was designed as a literature review performed according to the Fribergs method. This literature review is based on twelve quantitative articles published between 01/2007 and 09/2017. The search for the articles was conducted in CINAHL Complete database and PubMed database.

Results: The result of this review indicates that there are several, different interventions that may be used in addition to pharmacological treatment in order to effectively reduce preoperative anxiety in adult patients. Anxiety in the preoperative phase can be alleviated by providing the patient with information tailored to the individual's needs. Anxiety can also be reduced by providing emotional support or by helping the patient to find comfort in spirituality/religion. The result of this review indicates moreover that the level of anxious can be minimized by listening to soothing music, nature sounds or guided imagery. Relaxation exercises, aromatherapy, acupuncture and reflexology were also found to reduce preoperative anxiety. Only the photographic display was not found to be effective in reducing anxiety in the preoperative phase.

Discussion: The result of this review was discussed in relation to the nurse's responsibilities. The discussion of the results was focused on the practical issues about implementation of the non-pharmacological methods in the clinical practice. Jean Watson's Theory of Human Caring was used as a theoretical framework that helped the author in results analysis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. , p. 30
Keywords [en]
Preoperative anxiety, Preoperative care, Nursing interventions, Non-pharmacological interventions
Keywords [sv]
Preoperativ ångest, Preoperativ vård, Omvårdnadsåtgärder, Icke-farmakologiska interventioner
National Category
Nursing
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:esh:diva-6581OAI: oai:DiVA.org:esh-6581DiVA, id: diva2:1175730
Educational program
Bachelor of Science in Nursing
Uppsok
Medicine
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2018-01-22 Created: 2018-01-18 Last updated: 2018-01-22Bibliographically approved

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