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By Design, from design guidance to built form
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. (Architecture)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6957-0568
2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper explores the planning policy era of By Design: Urban design in the planning system: towards better practice through the lens of Planning Policy Guidance 1 (PPG1): General Policy and Principles and Planning Policy Guidance 3: Housing. The paper explores the objectives of urban design, as set out in By Design against PPG1’s objective to promote higher standards of urban design and PPG3’s objective to revise housing densities. Research takes a systematic approach to reviewing the evidence base available for the production of By Design and analyses density targets and urban design objectives against generic housing types of the day and four housing led development schemes delivered during the policy period. The paper argues that on density grounds, only two of the researched generic housing types delivered the density targets prescribed by PPG3, requiring the development industry to bring forward new models of development. The case study analysis establishes that the industry was able to adapt to the objectives of By Design with selected developments delivering the urban design objectives set out in By Design and density standards of PPG3. The paper concludes by arguing that whilst ‘By Design’ was extinguished as policy in 2012, its design objectives are still valid and may be relevant to new emerging dimensions related well-being as part of; Ease of movement and seasonal climate change as part of; Quality of the public realm.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2016.
Series
Research report / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1528
National Category
Engineering and Technology Architectural Engineering
Research subject
Architecture
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-67193ISBN: 978-91-7790-028-3 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-67193DiVA, id: diva2:1171970
Available from: 2018-01-08 Created: 2018-01-08 Last updated: 2018-08-20Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Urban design of winter cities: Winter season connectivity for soft mobility
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Urban design of winter cities: Winter season connectivity for soft mobility
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

All across the world the form of the built environment is playing a crucial role as enabler or inhibitor for urban outdoor activity such as soft mobility. Urban form can make it more attractive for people to be mobile outdoors and playing a role in the public life, or it can put people off venturing outside. For winter cities, a question for urban design is how we can design environments that are attractive for outdoor activity in the winter season as well as summer and additionally how will climate change influence these aspects.

The reason for studying this is the importance of understanding how, in relation to urban form, weather, seasonal variations, and climate change influences human outdoor activity. In this study the focus on outdoor activity is problematised around the concern that people spend a low percentage of their time outdoors in winter conditions. For society, the problem is that this trend and the related low levels of physical activity are associated with a range of health issues.

To study this the main question for this research is what attracts and hinders soft mobility during the winter season and how can this knowledge underpin new considerations about urban design for connectivity in winter cities? To address this, the research methods focused on document studies, surveys, mental mapping, photo elicitation and semi-structured discussions.

The study works at three scientific levels. Firstly, it seeks to understand the interrelationship between the built environment and people’s outdoor activity in winter. Secondly, it attempts to understand how connectivity for soft mobility in winter is being affected by weather and climate change. Thirdly, it seeks new ways of thinking about how the urban form can be designed to increase outdoor soft mobility in winter.

The discussion and conclusions focused on the argument that in winter settlements, the winter season can alter spatial patterns and settlement organisation. Here it was argued that in these settlements the winter season can be an aspect of urban morphology and can be part of the process of shaping the public realm and its connectivity for soft mobility in winter.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2018
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keywords
Urban form, urban design, seasonal climate variation, winter cities, climate change
National Category
Engineering and Technology Architectural Engineering
Research subject
Architecture
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70507 (URN)978-91-7790-189-1 (ISBN)978-91-7790-190-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-10-12, C305, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-08-21 Created: 2018-08-20 Last updated: 2018-09-20Bibliographically approved

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