Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Socioeconomic inequality in abdominal obesity among older people in Purworejo District, Central Java, Indonesia: a decomposition analysis approach
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7348-5286
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
Show others and affiliations
2017 (English)In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 214Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Obesity has become a global health challenge as its prevalence has increased globally in recent decades. Studies in high-income countries have shown that obesity is more prevalent among the poor. In contrast, obesity is more prevalent among the rich in low- and middle-income countries, hence requiring different focal points to design public health policies in the latter contexts. We examined socioeconomic inequalities in abdominal obesity in Purworejo District, Central Java, Indonesia and identified factors contributing to the inequalities.

METHODS: We utilised data from the WHO-INDEPTH Study on global AGEing and adult health (WHO-INDEPTH SAGE) conducted in the Purworejo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in Purworejo District, Indonesia in 2010. The study included 14,235 individuals aged 50 years and older. Inequalities in abdominal obesity across wealth groups were assessed separately for men and women using concentration indexes. Decomposition analysis was conducted to assess the determinants of socioeconomic inequalities in abdominal obesity.

RESULTS: Abdominal obesity was five-fold more prevalent among women than in men (30% vs. 6.1%; p < 0.001). The concentration index (CI) analysis showed that socioeconomic inequalities in abdominal obesity were less prominent among women (CI = 0.26, SE = 0.02, p < 0.001) compared to men (CI = 0.49, SE = 0.04, p < 0.001). Decomposition analysis showed that physical labour was the major determinant of socioeconomic inequalities in abdominal obesity among men, explaining 47% of the inequalities, followed by poor socioeconomic status (31%), ≤ 6 years of education (15%) and current smoking (11%). The three major determinants of socioeconomic inequalities in abdominal obesity among women were poor socio-economic status (48%), physical labour (17%) and no formal education (16%).

CONCLUSION: Abdominal obesity was more prevalent among older women in a rural Indonesian setting. Socioeconomic inequality in abdominal obesity exists and concentrates more among the rich population in both sexes. The inequality gap is less prominent among women, indicating a trend towards obesity being more common in poor women. Policies to address social determinants of health need to be developed to address the socioeconomic inequality gaps in obesity, with particular focus on addressing the existing burden of obesity among the better-off population group, while preventing the imminent burden of obesity among the worst-off group, particularly among women.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017. Vol. 16, no 1, article id 214
Keywords [en]
Abdominal obesity, Decomposition analysis, Low- and middle-income countries, Older people, Socio-economic inequality
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-143310DOI: 10.1186/s12939-017-0708-6ISI: 000417841700001PubMedID: 29233136OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-143310DiVA, id: diva2:1168312
Available from: 2017-12-20 Created: 2017-12-20 Last updated: 2018-10-02Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Abdominal obesity among older population in Indonesia: socioeconomic and gender inequality, pattern and impacts on disability and death
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Abdominal obesity among older population in Indonesia: socioeconomic and gender inequality, pattern and impacts on disability and death
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Bukfetma bland äldre i Indonesien : : Mönster av ojämlikhet utifrån sociala grupper och kön och dess påverkan på funktionsnedsättning och död
Abstract [en]

Background: Population ageing has contributed to the rise of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Concurrently, obesity prevalence is increasing in all age groups and has become a serious public health problem. Obesity is the main risk factors of the major chronic NCDs such as type 2 diabetes and has been linked to disability and mortality. Studies of socioeconomic inequalities in obesity among older people in Indonesia are scarce. Understanding socioeconomic inequalities are essential to develop appropriate health programme to improve the population health. This thesis describes the pattern of socioeconomic and gender inequality in abdominal obesity and analyses its impact on disability and all-cause mortality among older people in Indonesia.

Methods: This thesis is based on four studies conducted in Purworejo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site in Purworejo district, Central Java, Indonesia. This thesis uses both quantitative and qualitative methods. The qualitative study (sub-study 1) was based on 12 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with 68 participants from different age groups, sex, and living area. Content analysis was used to describe the community perceptions on diabetes and its risk factors. The quantitative studies (sub-study 2 to 4) utilized longitudinal panel data from the 1st (n = 11,753 individuals) and 2nd wave (n = 14,235 individuals) of the WHO-INDEPTH Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) conducted among all individuals aged 50 years and older in 2007 and 2010. Sub-study 2 used concentration index and decomposition analysis to analyse the pattern of socioeconomic and gender inequality in abdominal obesity. Sub-study 3 used linear regression to examine the association between abdominal obesity and disability. Sub-study 4 used Cox regression analysis with restricted cubic splines to examine the impact of abdominal obesity on all-cause mortality.

Results: The FGDs reveals that the community holds unrealistic optimism in perceiving diabetes its risk factors. The community stated that chronic NCD such as diabetes is caused by modern lifestyles and mostly attacks those who are considered as the wealthy (sub-study 1). Socioeconomic inequality in abdominal obesity exists in Purworejo HDSS. Abdominal obesity was more prevalent among the affluent men and women, with a lesser inequality gaps between rich and poor among women. The main contributing factors to inequalities in abdominal obesity were occupation, wealth index, and education (sub-study 2). In three-year period, the mean waist circumference decreased significantly among the poor. An increase in waist circumference was significantly associated with disability, and the poor people were more disabled compared to the rich (sub-study 3). A U-shaped association was observed between waist circumference and all-cause mortality, particularly among women. This indicated an increased risk of mortality in the lower and upper end of the waist circumference distribution. The poor with low waist circumference had a higher risk of mortality than the rich (sub-study 4).

Conclusion: Abdominal obesity was disproportionately more prevalent among older Indonesian women. Though the wealthy people have higher burden of abdominal obesity, the poor people experiences more disability and higher risk of death. Misperception on chronic NCDs and its risk factors exist among the Indonesian population. Abdominal obesity prevention strategies are needed to prevent chronic NCDs, disabilities, and mortality among Indonesian older population. The prevention strategies should be culturally sensitive and address all socioeconomic levels. Special attention should be given to disadvantaged women as the most vulnerable group.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet, 2018. p. 84
Series
Umeå University medical dissertations, ISSN 0346-6612 ; 1985
Keywords
Abdominal obesity, concentration index, disability, focus-group discussion, gender inequality, Indonesia, mortality, older people, socioeconomic inequality
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Gerontology, specialising in Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Public health; Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-152309 (URN)978-91-7601-952-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-10-26, Hörsal D, Unod T9, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-10-04 Created: 2018-10-02 Last updated: 2018-10-09Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(1149 kB)22 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 1149 kBChecksum SHA-512
3121c1f78cae9e73192b2c7081cca42f11c67d6b579b10eb823698ea46477092b6fa791861d418902ab97d887bd5c97615b04375fa4450d1fe0535d17791c6e8
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full textPubMed

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Pujilestari, Cahya UtamieNyström, LennarthNorberg, MargaretaWeinehall, LarsNg, Nawi
By organisation
Epidemiology and Global Health
In the same journal
International Journal for Equity in Health
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 22 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
pubmed
urn-nbn
Total: 27 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf