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Modelling and Simulation for Evaluation of Cooperative Intelligent Transport System Functions
Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driving Simulation and Visualization. Högskolan i Halmstad.
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Future vehicles are expected to be equipped with wireless communication technology, that enables them to be “connected” to each others and road infrastructures. Complementing current autonomous vehicles and automated driving systems, the wireless communication allows the vehicles to interact, cooperate, and be aware of its surroundings beyond their own sensors’ range. Such sys- tems are often referred to as Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS), which aims to provide extra safety, efficiency, and sustainability to transporta- tion systems. Several C-ITS applications are under development and will require thorough testing and evaluation before their deployment in the real-world. C- ITS depend on several sub-systems, which increase their complexity, and makes them difficult to evaluate.

Simulations are often used to evaluate many different automotive applications, including C-ITS. Although they have been used extensively, simulation tools dedicated to determine all aspects of C-ITS are rare, especially human factors aspects, which are often ignored. The majority of the simulation tools for C-ITS rely heavily on different combinations of network and traffic simulators. The human factors issues have been covered in only a few C-ITS simulation tools, that involve a driving simulator. Therefore, in this thesis, a C-ITS simulation framework that combines driving, network, and traffic simulators is presented. The simulation framework is able to evaluate C-ITS applications from three perspectives; a) human driver; b) wireless communication; and c) traffic systems.

Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) and its applications are chosen as the first set of C-ITS functions to be evaluated. Example scenarios from CACC and platoon merging applications are presented, and used as test cases for the simulation framework, as well as to elaborate potential usages of it. Moreover, approaches, results, and challenges from composing the simulation framework are presented and discussed. The results shows the usefulness of the proposed simulation framework.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Halmstad: Halmstad University Press , 2016. , p. 35
Keywords [en]
Cooperative ITS, Autonomous driving, Traffic mixture, Simulation, Adaptive cruise control, Platooning (electronic)
National Category
Computer Systems Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
20 Road: Traffic engineering, 23 Road: ITS och traffic
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12683ISBN: 9789187045516 (print)ISBN: 9789187045509 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:vti-12683DiVA, id: diva2:1167738
Presentation
2016-09-27, Wigforssalen, Halmstad, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Knowledge FoundationAvailable from: 2018-02-09 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2018-05-17Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Dimensions of cooperative driving, ITS and automation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dimensions of cooperative driving, ITS and automation
2015 (English)In: IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Proceedings, 2015, p. 144-149Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Wireless technology supporting vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication, allow vehicles and infrastructures to exchange information, and cooperate. Cooperation among the actors in an intelligent transport system (ITS) can introduce several benefits, for instance, increase safety, comfort, efficiency.

Automation has also evolved in vehicle control and active safety functions. Combining cooperation and automation would enable more advanced functions such as automated highway merge and negotiating right-of-way in a cooperative intersection. However, the combination have influences on the structure of the overall transport systems as well as on its behaviour. In order to provide a common understanding of such systems, this paper presents an analysis of cooperative ITS (C-ITS) with regard to dimensions of cooperation. It also presents possible influence on driving behaviour and challenges in deployment and automation of C-ITS.

Keywords
Electronics, Software, Automation, Vehicle, Autonomous vehicle, Safety, Behaviour
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-9271 (URN)10.1109/IVS.2015.7225677 (DOI)2-s2.0-84951010000 (Scopus ID)9781467372664 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, IV 2015, 28 June 2015 through 1 July 2015
Available from: 2016-03-07 Created: 2016-03-02 Last updated: 2018-02-09Bibliographically approved
2. Extended Driving Simulator for Evaluation of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extended Driving Simulator for Evaluation of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2016 annual ACM Conference on SIGSIM Principles of Advanced Discrete Simulation (SIGSIM-PADS '16), New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2016, p. 255-258Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Vehicles in cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) often need to interact with each other in order to achieve their goals, safe and efficient transport services. Since human drivers are still expected to be involved in C-ITS, driving simulators are appropriate tools for evaluation of the C-ITS functions. However, driving simulators often simplify the interactions or influences from the ego vehicle on the traffic. Moreover, they normally do not support vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication, which is the main enabler for C-ITS. Therefore, to increase the C-ITS evaluation capability, a solution on how to extend a driving simulator with traffic and network simulators to handle cooperative systems is presented as a result of this paper. Evaluation of the result using two use cases is presented. And, the observed limitations and challenges of the solution are reported and discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2016
Keywords
Simulator (driving), Cooperative intelligent transport system, Technology, Development, Network (traffic)
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Research subject
90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 914 Road: ITS och vehicle technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-10736 (URN)10.1145/2901378.2901397 (DOI)978-1-4503-3742-7 (ISBN)
Conference
2016 annual ACM Conference on SIGSIM Principles of Advanced Discrete Simulation (SIGSIM-PADS '16)
Projects
VICTIgSAFER-VICTIg
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2016-06-15 Created: 2016-06-15 Last updated: 2018-02-09Bibliographically approved
3. Cooperative Driving Simulation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cooperative Driving Simulation
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the Driving Simulation Conference 2016, 2016, p. 123-132Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

For a few decades, driving simulators have been supporting research and development of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). In the near future, connected vehicles are expected to be deployed. Driving simulators will need to support evaluation of cooperative driving applications within cooperative intelligent transportation systems (C-ITS) scenarios. C-ITS utilize vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2X) communication. Simulation of the inter vehicle communication is often not supported in driving simulators. On the other hand, previous efforts have been made to connect network simulators and traffic simulators, to perform C-ITS simulations. Nevertheless, interactions between actors in the system is an essential aspect of C-ITS. Driving simulators can provide the opportunity to study interactions and reactions of human drivers to the system. This paper present simulation of a C-ITS scenario using a combination of driving, network, and traffic simulators. The architecture of the solution and important challenges of the integration are presented. A scenario from Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC) 2016 is implemented in the simulator as an example use case. Lastly, potential usages and future developments are discussed.

Keywords
Intelligent transport system, Platooning (electronic), Simulator (driving), Simulation, Traffic, Network (traffic)
National Category
Computer Systems Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
20 Road: Traffic engineering, 23 Road: ITS och traffic; 80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 84 Road: Road users
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:vti:diva-12688 (URN)
Conference
DSC 2016 Europe, Driving Simulation and Virtual Reality Conference and Exhibition, 7-9 sept, 2016, Paris, France
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2016-09-12 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2018-02-09Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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