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On Heavy-Haul Wheel Damages using Vehicle Dynamics Simulation
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6346-6620
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Maintenance cost is one of the important issues in railway heavy-haul operations. In most of the cases, these costs are majorly referring to reprofiling and changing the wheels of the locomotives and the wagons. The main reason of the wheel damages is usually severe wear and/or surface initiated rolling contact fatigue (RCF).This work tries to enhance and improve the knowledge of the wheel wear and RCF prediction models using dynamic simulations. While most of the contents of this study can be generalised to other operational networks, this study is focused on the locomotives and wagons of the Swedish iron-ore company LKAB. The trains are operating on the approximately 500 km long IORE line from Luleå to Narvik in the north of Sweden and Norway respectively.Firstly, a literature survey of dynamic modelling of the wagons with various three-piece bogie types is presented. Then, with concentrating on the standard three-piece bogies, parameter studies are carried out to find out what the most important reasons of wheel damages are. Moreover, the long-term stability of wheel profiles of the IORE wagons is analysed. This is done by visualising the wear and RCF evolution on the wheel profiles over 150,000km of simulated running distance.Most of the calculations for the wagons are repeated for the locomotives. However, traction and braking are also considered in the simulation model and their effects on wheel damages are briefly studied. To improve the accuracy of the wheel damage analysis, a newly developed algorithm called FaStrip is used to solve the tangential contact problem instead of FASTSIM. The damage prediction model developed in the thesis is used to study the effects of increasing axle load, correcting the track gauge, limiting the electro-dynamic braking and using a harder wheel material on the wheel life. Furthermore, a new method is developed to predict the running distance between two consecutive reprofilings due to severe surface initiated fatigue. The method is based on shakedown analysis and laboratory tests.Most of the research works in wear calculation are limited to two approaches known as wear number and Archard methods. The correlation between these two methods is studied. The possibility of using the relation between the two methods for the wear calculation process is investigated mainly to reduce the calculation time for wheel profile optimisation models.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. , p. 93
Series
TRITA-AVE, ISSN 1651-7660
Keywords [en]
wear, RCF, rolling contact, traction, braking, heavy-haul, FASTSIM, FaStrip
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Vehicle and Maritime Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-220344ISBN: 978-91-7729-655-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-220344DiVA, id: diva2:1167426
Public defence
2018-02-06, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20171219

Available from: 2017-12-19 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2017-12-21Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Wheel damage on the Swedish iron ore line investigated via multibody simulation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wheel damage on the Swedish iron ore line investigated via multibody simulation
2014 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 228, no 6, p. 652-662Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Swedish iron ore company LKAB uses freight wagons with three-piece bogies to transport iron ore from its mines in Kiruna and Malmberget to the ports at Lulea and Narvik. A simulation model of the freight wagon is built using the multibody simulation code GENSYS. The objective is to investigate possible sources of rolling contact fatigue (RCF) of the wheels given the high level of observed damage. A parameter study is performed on the effects of vertical track stiffness and viscous damping that occur as a result of seasonal variations of the track condition. Another parameter study is carried out on the influence of the wheel/rail friction coefficient as in winter time the climate is very dry along most parts of the Malmbanan line. The impact of track gauge, track quality and cant deficiency on RCF is also studied. Comparing the calculated and observed RCF locations on wheels, attempts are made to find a relation between wear number and RCF damage. To detect the surface-initiated fatigue a so-called shakedown map is used. It is shown that RCF occurs on the tread of the inner wheels while negotiating curves with below an approximately 450 m radius. It is also shown that cant deficiency can be helpful for the vehicles to negotiate curves and to reduce the risk of RCF, however, on the other hand it may increase the track forces and in severe cases result in flange climbing. Lateral track irregularities and a large track gauge result in small contact areas and can lead to a higher risk of RCF. In cold dry climate conditions, as the water content in air drops significantly, the wheel/rail friction coefficient increases and when the material in the wheel begins to behave in a brittle manner, the risk of RCF is significantly increased, especially when the wear rate is not high enough to remove the initiated cracks.

Keywords
Rolling contact fatigue, wear, three-piece bogie, simulation, track forces, friction
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-150935 (URN)10.1177/0954409714523264 (DOI)000340543500010 ()2-s2.0-84905513096 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20140912

Available from: 2014-09-12 Created: 2014-09-11 Last updated: 2017-12-18Bibliographically approved
2. Modeling and simulation of freight wagon with special attention to the prediction of track damage
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling and simulation of freight wagon with special attention to the prediction of track damage
2014 (English)In: The international Journal of railway technology, ISSN 2049-5358, E-ISSN 2053-602X, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-36Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper gives an overview of the state of the art of modelling and simulation of freight wagons. The main focus of the paper is to analyse the impact of freight wagons operation on track and wheel damage. Especially experiences of more than 15 years of modelling and simulation of a variety of freight wagons at KTH Royal Institute of Technology are summarized. Different models for the dry friction suspension elements are presented. The challenges of validation arising e.g. from the strong non-linearities and non-smoothness in vehicle models are discussed. Possibilities to use simulation results to predict wheel and track damage like wear, rolling contact fatigue and track settlement are introduced. It is concluded that it is possible to develop simulation models that give relevant results, even though it is more difficult than for passenger vehicles. The results, however, are very sensitive to small changes in the input parameters; therefore a sensitivity analysis regarding some key parameters should always be included in the validation phase of a model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lisbon: Saxe-Coburg Publications, 2014
Keywords
Freight wagon, simulation, friction damping, running behaviour, track damage, wear, rolling contact fatigue, track access charges
National Category
Vehicle Engineering Reliability and Maintenance Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Fordonsteknik; Vehicle and Maritime Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-163929 (URN)
Note

QC 20150424

Available from: 2015-04-13 Created: 2015-04-13 Last updated: 2017-12-18Bibliographically approved
3. Prediction of RCF and Wear Evolution of Iron-Ore Locomotive wheels
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prediction of RCF and Wear Evolution of Iron-Ore Locomotive wheels
2015 (English)In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 338-339, p. 62-72Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Locomotives for the iron ore line in northern Sweden and Norway have a short wheel life. The average running distance between two consecutive wheel turnings is around 40,000 km which makes the total life of a wheel around 400,000 km. The main reason of the short wheel life is the severe rolling contact fatigue (RCF). The train operator (LKAB) has decided to change the wheel profiles to get a better match with the rail shapes in order to decrease the creep forces leading to RCF. Two wheel profiles optimised via a genetic algorithm were proposed. They have, however, not been analysed for long term wear development. There is a risk that the optimised profiles might wear in an unfavourable way and after a while cause even higher RCF or wear than the original one. This study predicts wheel profile evolution using the uniform wear prediction tool based on Archard’s wear law. RCF evolution on the surface of the wheel profiles is also investigated. The impact of wear on polishing the wheel surface and avoiding the RCF cracks to propagate is considered via introducing a correction factor to the calculated RCF index. Traction and braking are also considered in the dynamic simulation model, where a PID control system keeps the speed of the vehicle constant by applying a torque on the loco wheels. The locomotives are also equipped with a flange lubrication system, therefore the calculations are performed both for lubricated and non-lubricated wheels. The simulation results for the wheel profiles currently in use, which are performed to validate the model and the simulation procedure, show a good agreement with the measurements. It is also concluded that the lubrication system partly does not perform as expected. Comparison between the proposed optimised profiles for their long term behaviour suggests that one of them produces less RCF and wear compared to the other one.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
RCF, Wear, Heavy haul, Traction, Braking, Lubrication
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Fordonsteknik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-169524 (URN)10.1016/j.wear.2015.05.015 (DOI)000362139200008 ()2-s2.0-84931271282 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150622

Available from: 2015-06-16 Created: 2015-06-16 Last updated: 2018-03-06Bibliographically approved
4. STUDY OF THE LONG TERM EVOLUTION OF LOW-RCF WHEEL PROFILES FOR LKAB IRON-ORE WAGONS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>STUDY OF THE LONG TERM EVOLUTION OF LOW-RCF WHEEL PROFILES FOR LKAB IRON-ORE WAGONS
2015 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-220338 (URN)
Conference
IHHA 2015
Note

QC 20171219

Available from: 2017-12-18 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2018-02-20Bibliographically approved
5. Fast Wear Calculation for Wheel Profile Optimization
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fast Wear Calculation for Wheel Profile Optimization
2015 (English)In: 10th International Conference on Contact Mechanics and Wear of Rail/Wheel Systems, Colorado Springs, August 30 - September 3, ​2015, 10th Contact Mechanics Conference , 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
10th Contact Mechanics Conference, 2015
Keywords
wear, prediction, Archard, wear number, simulation, energy dissipation, wheel profile, uniform wear, locomotive, optimization
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear) Applied Mechanics Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Järnvägsgruppen - Fordonsteknik; Järnvägsgruppen - Effektiva tågsystem för godstrafik
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-183277 (URN)2-s2.0-84963621663 (Scopus ID)
Conference
10th International Conference on Contact Mechanics and Wear of Rail/Wheel Systems
Note

QC 20160407

Available from: 2016-03-04 Created: 2016-03-04 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
6. Wheel life prediction model – an alternative to the FASTSIM algorithm for RCF
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wheel life prediction model – an alternative to the FASTSIM algorithm for RCF
2018 (English)In: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159, Vol. 56, no 7, p. 1051-1071Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this article, a wheel life prediction model considering wear and rolling contact fatigue (RCF) is developed and applied to a heavy-haul locomotive. For wear calculations, a methodology based on Archard's wear calculation theory is used. The simulated wear depth is compared with profile measurements within 100,000km. For RCF, a shakedown-based theory is applied locally, using the FaStrip algorithm to estimate the tangential stresses instead of FASTSIM. The differences between the two algorithms on damage prediction models are studied. The running distance between the two reprofiling due to RCF is estimated based on a Wohler-like relationship developed from laboratory test results from the literature and the Palmgren-Miner rule. The simulated crack locations and their angles are compared with a five-year field study. Calculations to study the effects of electro-dynamic braking, track gauge, harder wheel material and the increase of axle load on the wheel life are also carried out.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2018
Keywords
RCF, wear, rolling contact, heavy haul, FASTSIM, FaStrip
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-220340 (URN)10.1080/00423114.2017.1403636 (DOI)000432220800004 ()
Note

QC 20171219

Available from: 2017-12-18 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2018-05-31Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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  • Other style
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Language
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  • en-GB
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  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
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  • Other locale
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Output format
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