Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Integrerade psykosociala insatser: Policy, implementering och praktik i ett komplext verksamhetsfält
Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8802-133X
2017 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Integrated Community Mental Health Services : Policy, Implementation and Practice in a Complex Field (English)
Abstract [sv]

Inledning

Alltsedan psykiatrins avinstitutionalisering tog fart under 1980- och 1990-talen har en utveckling av samhällsbaserade psykosociala insatser förespråkats för att erbjuda vård och stöd till personer med psykisk funktionsnedsättning. Insatserna förväntas bidra till att brukarna får tillgång till effektiv vård och stöd, samtidigt som de inkluderas i samhället. Vidare förutsätts insatserna baseras på kunskap och evidens, samt bygga på brukarens delaktighet och stödja dennes återhämtning. En annan målsättning är att vissa insatser ges i form av integrerade modeller, så att personer ur målgruppen får tillgång till sammanhållet stöd från inblandade myndigheter. Även om Sverige räknas som ett resursstarkt land som har kommit långt på området, så förekommer kritik mot utvecklingen. Kritiken har berört både planering och styrning på politisk nivå, men även utförandet av de insatser som erbjuds till brukarna. Kritiken har bland annat handlat om bristande samverkan mellan landsting och kommuner, och om stora lokala variationer i den erbjudna servicens kvalitet. I den här avhandlingen studeras dels utformningen av policy på området, dels implementering av specifika insatser. Syftet med avhandlingen är att undersöka hur svenska policymakare på nationell nivå har hanterat utvecklingen av psykosociala insatser för personer med psykisk funktionsnedsättning, samt att analysera möjligheter och svårigheter för organisationer och personal när det gäller att implementera de insatser som förespråkas av beslutsfattare. De frågeställningar som avhandlingen söker besvara är följande:

  • Hur formuleras policy som syftar till att införa samhällsbaserade psykosociala insatser, och vad kan policyns egenskaper innebära för genomförandet av den?
  • Vilka styrstrategier uttrycks i statliga policydokument?
  • Vad hämmar respektive underlättar implementeringen av föreslagna integrerade psykosociala insatser?
  • Hur kan vi förstå vad som påverkar möjligheten att erbjuda integrerade psykosociala insatser, i termer av lokala förutsättningar och strategier för implementering?

Metod

Policy på området studerades genom en studie av tre av de övergripande dokument som beslutats på regeringsnivå de senaste 20 åren. Riktade kvalitativa innehållsanalyser baserade på relevant litteratur genomfördes. Implementering av insatser studerades genom att 15 program följdes under 3 års tid. 14 av dessa arbetade med att implementera arbetsrehabiliteringsprogram utifrån modellen Individual Placement and Support (IPS). Under samma tidsperiod följdes ett team som implementerade den intensiva samordnings-, vård- och stödmodellen Assertive Community Treatment (ACT). För att bedöma verksamheternas följsamhet till modellerna genomfördes programtrohetsskattningar av samtliga program. Data avseende programmens målgrupp samlades också in. Tre IPS-program deltog i en fördjupningsstudie där kvalitativa intervjuer genomfördes med ledare, personal och samverkanspartners. Implementeringen av dessa program analyserades utifrån implementeringsramverket the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. Implementeringen av samtliga 14 IPS-program studerades med hjälp av skattningsskalan the Sustainable Implementation Scale (SIS). När det gäller ACT-teamet genomfördes dels kvalitativa innehållsanalyser av djupintervjuer, och dels skattningar av implementeringskomponenter med hjälp av SIS.

Resultat

Policy på området har innehållit stora mått av otydlighet och konflikt, både gällande de mål och medel som har formulerats. Regeringen har främst förespråkat så kallade mjuka styrstrategier, vanligen i form av statliga stimulansbidrag. Vissa förtydliganden och konkretioner har skett under tid, vilka ibland går i linje med de internationella rörelserna New Public Management och evidensbaserad praktik. Exempel på försök att strama upp styrningen är målformuleringar som förespråkar riktade och prestationsbaserade stimulansbidrag, samt nationella riktlinjer för att styra utvecklingen mot utvalda specificerade insatser. Trots detta är det fortfarande de berörda myndigheterna som är ansvariga för att välja ut, utforma och implementera psykosociala insatser. På verksamhetsnivå leder detta till att många otydligheter består, vilka ibland är relaterade till svårigheter att avgränsa ansvarsområden och att förändra hindrande regelverk och traditioner. Dessutom förekommer konflikter, exempelvis i form av konkurrerande målsättningar och ojämn resurstilldelning.

Studierna av de integrerade modellerna IPS och ACT visar att implementering av dessa är möjlig, även i en sektoriserad välfärdskontext som den svenska. Det finns dock en rad faktorer på såväl organisationsnivå som teamnivå, som försvårar implementeringen. Exempel på dessa är de involverade organisationernas varierande målsättningar och traditioner, regelverkens utformning, samt svårigheter att erhålla långsiktig finansiering. I en del fall beskrivs de arbetssätt som modellerna förespråkar som försvårande, då de upplevs som annorlunda och utmanande för existerande rutiner och uppfattningar om stöd till målgruppen. Ett stort hinder för effektiv implementering är svårigheter att samverka, främst mellan, men även inom inblandade organisationer. De flesta program som lyckades genomföra en hållbar implementering hade personal som var duktiga på att navigera förbi de hinder som orsakades av ogynnsamma regler, och de lyckades även hitta vägar för att etablera samverkan, både horisontellt (med samarbetspartners på samma hierarkiska nivå) och vertikalt (mellan ledning och personal). En verksamhetsledare som har möjlighet att påverka samverkansrelationer i både horisontell och vertikal riktning är gynnande för implementeringen. Andra betydelsefulla komponenter som underlättar implementering är en noggrann planering innan ett program startas, medveten rekrytering av personal, formering av ändamålsenliga styrgrupper, samt att tidigt i processen arbeta strategiskt för att lösa finansieringsfrågan. Även programtrohetsskattningar var betydelsefulla, då de både fungerade som instrument för att identifiera förbättringsområden för programmen, men också hade en legitimerande funktion vid återkoppling till ledningen.

Slutsatser

Det råder en samstämmighet i övergripande målsättningar som syftar till att utveckla området integrerade psykosociala insatser. På en mer konkret nivå är läget betydligt oklarare, både gällande målsättningar i policy och av vem och hur insatserna ska implementeras. Även om vissa förändringar skett, står regeringen fortsatt för en mjuk styrning vilken lämnar ett stort ansvar till de myndigheter som ska implementera valda insatser. Detta innebär en rad svårigheter för frontlinjepersonalen, vilket leder till att de ofta behöver lägga mycket tid och energi på att hitta vägar för att överkomma dessa svårigheter.

I många fall har ledare och personal goda möjligheter att uppnå en hög programtrohet på teamnivå, men för en hållbar implementering krävs det att ett program är väl förankrat både vertikalt och horisontellt. Därför finns ett behov av att forskare och beslutsfattare tar ett tydligare helhetsgrepp, både på området policy och implementering av specifika insatser. Skattningar av programtrohet och implementering kan vara ett stöd i att identifiera vad som fungerar samt vad som behöver förändras i och mellan organisationer. Men för att programmen ska lyckas med en effektiv implementering på organisationsnivå behöver deras legitimitet stärkas vertikalt, och planering för långsiktig lokal finansiering behöver göras i ett tidigt skede.

Abstract [en]

Introduction

Since the deinstitutionalization of psychiatry started in the 1980’s, the field of psychiatry has moved in the direction of community-based psychosocial interventions for people with mental illnesses. The interventions selected should be based on knowledge and evidence, and support the users’ empowerment and recovery. In addition, some of the services should be provided in forms of integrated models, meaning that all agencies involved should provide cohesive care and support. Two examples of such interventions are the occupational rehabilitation program Individual Placement and Support (IPS) and the intensive case management model Assertive Community Treatment (ACT). Although Sweden is considered a high-resource country, the availability of psychosocial services has been criticized. This criticism has been related to policymaking as well as the quality of the services provided. Examples of areas considered problematic include collaboration deficiencies among disparate human service organizations and substantial local variations in available types of services. This thesis aims to examine how national-level policymakers in Sweden have handled the development of psychosocial support and to analyze facilitators and barriers experienced by these organizations in their implementation of community-based and integrated models. The research questions are as follows:

-       How have policies concerning community-based psychosocial interventions been formulated and how do the characteristics of these policies affect the implementation of its goals?

-       How do different types of steering strategies influence national-level policy implementation proposals?

-       Which facilitators and barriers to effective implementation of proposed integrated interventions can be identified?

-       How can the ability to provide integrated psychosocial interventions be explained in terms of local conditions and strategies used for implementation?

Methods

A study of community mental health policy covering three of the major documents published at the national level from the last 20 years was performed. Directed content analysis based on literature relevant for the research area was used. In order to study the implementation of the selected interventions, 15 programs were followed for a three-year period. 14 of these programs were implementing IPS and the other one implemented ACT. In order to monitor the programs’ adherence to the selected models, program fidelity assessments were performed. Data on the programs’ target groups were collected. Three of the IPS-programs participated in an in-depth study where qualitative interviews with leaders, staff, and collaboration partners were performed. The implementation of the three programs were analyzed utilizing the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. All of the 14 IPS programs were included in an implementation study where the Sustainable Implementation Scale (SIS) was used to identify facilitators and barriers to implementation. In the study of the ACT team, qualitative directed content analysis of in-depth interviews and SIS-assessments were performed. After three years, the sustainability of all programs was assessed.

Results

Mental health policies have involved high levels of ambiguity and conflict in relation to both the goals and the means. The government has prioritized soft steering strategies, usually in the form of financial stimulus grants. Over time, these policies have (at least to some degree) been clearer when psychosocial interventions are being described. In addition, the development of policy has led to harder steering strategies, illustrated by targeted and performance-based grants and the advocacy of national guidelines to steer agencies towards preferred interventions. Despite these changes, independent agencies are still responsible for selection, framing, and implementation of the interventions.

Implementation of the integrated models IPS and ACT is possible, even in the context of a sectored welfare system such as Sweden.  However, there are a number of implementation barriers at the organizational and team levels. Obstructive factions include involved agencies disparate traditions and regulations, as well as the programs’ difficulties in securing long-term funding. Some of the staff interviewed considered the characteristics of the interventions as problematic since they challenged existing routines and views about support of the target group. Another critical component was the ability to establish collaboration, both horizontally (with partners at the same hierarchical level), and vertically (between management and staff). A team leader with the mandate to influence interactions horizontally and vertically is therefore a facilitating factor. In most of the programs that managed to perform a sustainable implementation of the models, a critical success factor was found to be staffs’ ability to navigate around a variety of barriers. Additional facilitators to successful implementation was careful planning before the start-up of a program, effective staff recruitment, the formation of a dedicated steering group, and a plan for local funding early in the implementation process. Regularly-performed program fidelity assessments were also noted as an important means to identify improvement opportunities for the programs. Collectively, these components served as tools to increase the programs’ legitimacy since the team leaders used them to provide feedback to the local decision makers.

Conclusions

At an abstract level, there is general agreement of the overarching needs in the area of integrated psychosocial interventions, but there are discrepancies when it comes to how to best convert this shared definition of need into concrete psychosocial interventions. The majority of steering strategies used are still considered ‘soft’, which leaves much of the responsibility to the implementing agencies.  At a grass-root level this leads to several difficulties, including unclear responsibility definitions and collaboration challenges between agencies. Instead of prioritizing the work with their clients, the staff are forced to put a lot of time and energy into solving these problems.

In most cases, team leaders and staff are able to reach high program fidelity at a team level. However, a sustainable implementation demands that a program has been anchored both vertically and horizontally. There is a need for a holistic approach by researchers and decision makers, both in the area of policymaking and implementation of selected psychosocial interventions. Assessments of program fidelity and implementation have the potential to help agencies identify strengths and opportunities for growth both within each entity and between involved organizations. In order to implement the selected models successfully at an organizational level, the programs´ vertical legitimacy has to increase, and plans for long-term local funding strategies have to be initiated early in the implementation process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2017. , p. 90
Series
Studier i socialt arbete vid Umeå universitet : avhandlings- och skriftserie, ISSN 0283-300X ; 87
Keyword [en]
community mental health services, implementation, psychosocial interventions, policy, individual placement and support, assertive community treatment, integrated care, collaboration
Keyword [sv]
psykosociala insatser, socialpsykiatri, samhällsbaserad psykiatri, policy, individual placement and support, assertive community treatment, ips, act, samverkan, implementering
National Category
Social Work Psychiatry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-143123ISBN: 978-91-7601-820-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:umu-143123DiVA, id: diva2:1167197
Public defence
2018-01-12, Hörsal S213h, Samhällsvetarhuset, Umeå, 10:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-12-21 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2017-12-21Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Policy Changes in Community Mental Health: Interventions and Strategies Used in Sweden over 20 Years
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Policy Changes in Community Mental Health: Interventions and Strategies Used in Sweden over 20 Years
2017 (English)In: Social Policy & Administration, ISSN 0144-5596, E-ISSN 1467-9515, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 95-113Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The deinstitutionalization of mental health care has changed the responsibilities of involved authoritiesand has led to a continuous need for new treatment forms and interventions. This articledescribes this development in Europe, and in particular how these new conditions have been handledin Sweden over the past 20 years at the level of governmental policy-making. Three major policydocuments from 1994, 2009 and 2012 were included in this study. To increase our understandingof the policies’ contents, we have used theoretical concepts concerning governance,implementation and political risk management. Although our main interest was to find out howthe government handles interventions for users of the mental health care system, we found that thepolicy work is progressing stepwise. The first document, from the deinstitutionalization era, did notdiscuss interventions clearly. Instead, it was mainly concerned with both practical and economicalareas of responsibility. The second document, from the post-deinstitutionalization era, was morefocused on what services should be delivered to the users, while the most recently published documentto a greater extent addressed the question of how the support is supposed to be designed. The trendin European community mental health policy has been to advocate services in open forms that areintegrated into the society’s other care systems. This is also the case in Sweden, and continuous workis being done by the government to find strategies to support the development, and to meet the needs atboth political and local levels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2017
Keyword
Mental health policy, Community mental health, Governance, Implementation, Sweden, Psychiatry
National Category
Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy Other Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-111787 (URN)10.1111/spol.12175 (DOI)000394788000006 ()
Available from: 2015-11-23 Created: 2015-11-23 Last updated: 2018-03-16Bibliographically approved
2. Critical Components in Implementing Evidence-based Practice: A Multiple Case Study of Individual Placement and Support for People with Psychiatric Disabilities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Critical Components in Implementing Evidence-based Practice: A Multiple Case Study of Individual Placement and Support for People with Psychiatric Disabilities
2016 (English)In: Social Policy & Administration, ISSN 0144-5596, E-ISSN 1467-9515Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

When developing Community Mental Health Services to support people with psychiatric disabilities, European countries are advocating evidence-based practice (EBP). Individual Placement and Support (IPS) is an evidence-based model designed to support people in acquiring and maintaining competitive employment. Implementation science is a growing research field, with a focus on components that impact the process of implementing EBP programmes. In this multiple case study, we have followed three IPS demonstration sites for two years, in order to describe and analyze barriers and facilitators for implementation, according to constructs described in the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (Damschroder et al. 2009). The results highlight the importance of strategic networking, as well as the need for planning and preparations carried out before the start of an EBP programme, since deficiencies related to these constructs are difficult to compensate for.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2016
Keyword
Community mental health, Implementation, Evidence-based practice, Individual placement and support, Severe mental illness, Organizational settings
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-124616 (URN)10.1111/spol.12243 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-08-17 Created: 2016-08-17 Last updated: 2018-03-16Bibliographically approved
3. Implementation of Evidence-Based Interventions: Analyzing Critical Components for Sustainability in Community Mental Health Services
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Implementation of Evidence-Based Interventions: Analyzing Critical Components for Sustainability in Community Mental Health Services
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This study analyses the implementation and sustainability of evidence-based community mental health services in the form of publicly financed Individual Placement and Support programs. Critical implementation components and program fidelity were assessed after one year. After two years, program fidelity was assessed once again. After three years, the programs’ sustainability was assessed and semi-structured interviews performed, in order to deepen the understanding of implementation. Interviews and documents provided the quantitative and qualitative data, which were analyzed by the use of the Supported Employment Fidelity Scale, the Sustainable Implementation Scale (which was developed in a connecting study), and qualitative content analysis. Despite promising fidelity results after one year, eight out of 14 programs were terminated within three years. Implementation of integrated evidence-based programs in community-based settings is a delicate undertaking. Implementing agencies can benefit from rigorous preparation before program start, especially concerning the circumstances at the organizational level, such as making plans for collaboration, financing and assessments of program fidelity.

National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-143118 (URN)
Funder
Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, 33716/2011
Available from: 2017-12-18 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2017-12-18Bibliographically approved
4. Complex Interventions and Interorganisational Relationships: Examining Core Implementation Components of Assertive Community Treatment
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Complex Interventions and Interorganisational Relationships: Examining Core Implementation Components of Assertive Community Treatment
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Introduction: There is increasing interest in implementing evidence-based integrated models of care in community-based mental health service systems. Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) is seen as an attractive, and at the same time challenging, model to implement in sectored service settings. This study investigates the implementation process of such an initiative.

Methods: Interviews were conducted with ACT team members, the process leader, steering group members, and collaboration partners. The “Sustainable Implementation Scale” helped to identify critical implementation components, and these were further explored using the qualitative interview data. The “Tool for Measuring Assertive Community Treatment” addressed programme fidelity, and the initiative’s sustainability was assessed.

Results: High-fidelity implementation of ACT in a sectored service setting is possible. Prominent components that facilitated implementation were careful preparations, team members’ characteristics, and efforts by the process leader and the steering group to improve networking. Implementation was hampered by conflicting goals among the involved authorities and a mismatch between the ACT model’s characteristics and existing organisational traditions and regulations.

Discussion and Conclusions: Reducing the uncertainty caused by conflicting goals is an important step in improving the implementation of ACT. In order to facilitate implementation, the goals, regulations, and availability of resources should be aligned horizontally and vertically through the involved organisations.

Keyword
Integrated Care, Mental Health Services, Evidence-based Practice, Assertive Community Treatment, Implementation, Case Management
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:umu:diva-143121 (URN)
Funder
Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, 33716/2011
Available from: 2017-12-18 Created: 2017-12-18 Last updated: 2017-12-18Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(616 kB)380 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT02.pdfFile size 616 kBChecksum SHA-512
1b1b3df167c9fbe9459c05e8737a6415f496799073f817648b5a046e8868943208bfd49b81c6085d5f76c7b3734f7a6d738f0f275fb3e73c23ea0339b24a3fd6
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf
spikblad(120 kB)13 downloads
File information
File name SPIKBLAD01.pdfFile size 120 kBChecksum SHA-512
28c1cd52f84372540bf25fc83221febbc724ffd51d9ceb30e4b579b0ae2fd0fa2652562cd118de1501a909032d20f3c756820e9c72fe16fded07d19360b8e509
Type spikbladMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Bergmark, Magnus
By organisation
Department of Social Work
Social WorkPsychiatry

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 380 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 10133 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
v. 2.34-SNAPSHOT
|