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Managing Radio and Energy Resources in LTE-Based Military Training Networks
Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES). Saab Training & Simulation, Husqvarna, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3933-285X
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The number of wireless connected devices are growing exponentially and the importance of this research area is growing as well to meet the known and looming challenges and expectations. The 5:th Generation telecommunications standard is partly embodied by the Machine-to-Machine (M2M) and Internet of Things (IoT) technologies and standards to handle a big part of these devices and connections. An example within the IoT paradigm is military training systems where each system can consist of thousands of battery operated mobile devices and their shifting requirements shall be fullled in an energy-aware manner to increase battery operating times.

Military training radio networks enables realistic combat training. The services and features provided in commercial telecommunications networks are desirable in these often proprietary and task specic networks, increasing capabilities and functionalities. To facilitate the current and future R&D of LTE based networks for adoption in military training networks and services this doctoral thesis intends to provide the starting ground for the energy-aware LTE based wireless communications. The thesis first presents general solutions on how to meet traffic deadlines in wireless networks for large number of nodes, and then continues with solutions for energy-aware LTE-based communications for the User Equipments (UEs).

The work builds on the problem formulation how to provide energy-aware resource handling for LTE-based military training networks from where three research questions are derived. From the research questions we derive different hypotheses and then test these within the investigated area to answer the research questions.

The contributions of this work are within areas of resource handling and power saving for mobile devices. In the first area an admission control using deterministic analysis is proposed fullling traffic requirements for military training mobile nodes. This admission control is enhanced for multiple-channel base stations, and evaluated using mobile nodes with different heterogeneous traffic requirements. In the second part energy-awareness is in focus for LTE/LTE-A based networks. The main power saving method for LTE/LTE-A UEs, Discontinuous Reception (DRX) mechanism, is evaluated and models for DRX in Idle and Connected state are proposed including metrics for wake-up delay and power saving. Additionally a mean queuing delay analysis is proposed for a variant of the Connected state DRX. Using these models and metrics, practical design guidelines for tuning of DRX parameters are proposed, including optimization of DRX parameters for either minimizing delay or maximizing power saving.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Halmstad: Halmstad University Press, 2017. , p. xi, 16
Series
Halmstad University Dissertations ; 38
Keywords [en]
4G, 5G, LTE, DRX
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-35807ISBN: 978-91-87045-79-0 (print)ISBN: 978-91-87045-78-3 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hh-35807DiVA, id: diva2:1164581
Public defence
2017-12-01, Halda Hall, Building Visionen, Kristian IV:s väg 3, Halmstad, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-12-12 Created: 2017-12-11 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Military Training Network with Admission Control using Real-Time Analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Military Training Network with Admission Control using Real-Time Analysis
2014 (English)In: 2014 IEEE 19th International Workshop on Computer Aided Modeling and Design of Communication Links and Networks (CAMAD), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2014, p. 249-254, article id 7033244Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Military training radio networks typically consist of large numbers of mobile nodes and have to provide real-time (RT) communication between these nodes. This paper introduces a method on how to manage radio resources and provide Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees for heterogeneous traffic by using admission control, deterministic queuing, and scheduling methods. The proposed solution is based on the use of a RT feasibility test in the admission control and earliest deadline first (EDF) scheduling and queuing. This deterministic solution handles heterogeneous traffic through a novel combination of RT downlink and two types of RT uplink dynamic scheduling mechanisms. The uplink scheduling consists of a control packet based mechanism for sporadic RT traffic and a periodic short-latency mechanism for periodic RT traffic. The method presented in this paper is investigated by computer simulation, evaluating its performance and determining the maximum number of nodes supported, given a worst-case user scenario. To the best of our knowledge this is the first centralized protocol designed for a military training network providing application-specific RT support for heterogeneous traffic. ©2014 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2014
Keywords
Military training radio networks, real-time guarantees, admission control, EDF scheduling, MAC
National Category
Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-27413 (URN)10.1109/CAMAD.2014.7033244 (DOI)000380484700051 ()2-s2.0-84949928539 (Scopus ID)978-1-4799-5725-5 (ISBN)
Conference
2014 IEEE 19th International Workshop on Computer Aided Modeling and Design of Communication Links and Networks (CAMAD), Athens, Greece, December 1-3, 2014
Available from: 2015-01-06 Created: 2015-01-06 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
2. Multichannel admission control for military training network
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multichannel admission control for military training network
2015 (English)In: 2015 IEEE 18th International Symposium on Real-Time Distributed Computing (ISORC) / [ed] Lisa O’Conner, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 150-157Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A military training radio network requires support for a large number of mobile nodes with heterogeneous traffic and real-time requirements. We propose a deterministic protocol and an admission control using real-time analysis for a centralized radio network with a multichannel base station. The admission control implements an algorithm for frequency allocation to mobile nodes, and guarantees timely treatment of real-time traffic. The proposed online heuristic frequency allocation algorithm is compared to other known heuristic algorithms: round robin over channels and fill one channel first. The goal with the heuristic algorithms is to maximize the number of supported mobile nodes. Our results show that when the high utilization part of the traffic have shorter deadlines it is advantageous to differentiate different types of nodes onto separate frequencies, whilst if the deadline is increased it is advantageous to mix different types of nodes on each frequency. © Copyright 2015 IEEE

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society, 2015
Keywords
Military training radio networks, real-time guarantees, admission control, EDF scheduling, MAC, multichannel
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-29203 (URN)10.1109/ISORC.2015.28 (DOI)000380606500019 ()2-s2.0-84962891450 (Scopus ID)978-1-4799-8781-8 (ISBN)
Conference
2015 IEEE 18th International Symposium on Real-Time Distributed Computing (IEEE ISORC), Auckland, New Zealand, Apr. 13-17, 2015
Available from: 2015-08-15 Created: 2015-08-15 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
3. Performance Evaluation of LTE/LTE-A DRX: A Markovian Approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance Evaluation of LTE/LTE-A DRX: A Markovian Approach
2015 (English)In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 386-397, article id 7303883Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

LTE/LTE-A are emerging communication technologies on the way towards 5G telecommunication systems. Ubiquitous adoption of connectivity in between different kinds of sensors, wearable devices and other low-power equipment raises an importance of the energy-efficient wireless communications. In LTE/LTE-A the Discontinuous Reception Mechanism (DRX) aims at power saving of User Equipment (UE) devices. In the paper we present an analysis of DRX, which is novel in two dimensions. First, our analytical approach is different to existing ones due to the use of Markov chain instead of a semi-Markov ones. Secondly, along with the generic traffic models we also analyze the efficiency of DRX for military training application systems, what has not been done before. We suggest few practical recommendations regarding the DRX parameters tuning also. © 2015 IEEE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2015
Keywords
LTE/LTE-A, DRX, power saving, energy efficiency, wake-up delay, machine-to-machine communication, military training, IoT
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-29336 (URN)10.1109/JIOT.2015.2493370 (DOI)000377481700013 ()2-s2.0-84969821510 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-08-31 Created: 2015-08-31 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
4. Mean Queuing Delay in LTE DRX
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mean Queuing Delay in LTE DRX
2016 (English)In: IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, ISSN 2162-2337, E-ISSN 2162-2345, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 444-447, article id 7496866Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Energy-efficiency is a crucial requirement for future 5G radio devices. Discontinuous reception (DRX) is a mechanism for power saving in LTE/LTE-A standard. In this letter, a method is developed to compute the mean queuing delay induced by the DRX. In contrast to existing semi-Markovian models, an approach, which combines Markov chains and regenerative processes, is proposed. © 2012 IEEE

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016
Keywords
DRX, energy efficiency, IoT, LTE/LTE-A, machine-To-machine communication, military training, power saving, queuing delay, wake-up delay
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-32113 (URN)10.1109/LWC.2016.2582694 (DOI)000386070400027 ()2-s2.0-84983749143 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-10-01 Created: 2016-10-01 Last updated: 2018-03-23Bibliographically approved
5. Tuning of LTE/LTE-A DRX parameters
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tuning of LTE/LTE-A DRX parameters
2016 (English)In: 2016 IEEE 21st International Workshop on Computer Aided Modelling and Design of Communication Links and Networks (CAMAD), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2016, p. 95-100Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The tradeoff between the power saving and the queuing delay in LTE/LTE-A radio devices with Discontinuous Reception (DRX) Mechanism is discussed. Two optimization problems to tune the DRX parameters are formulated. An optimal performance determined by exhaustive search over a large parameter set and a reduced parameter set, obtained by disabling short DRX cycles, is compared.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2016
Series
International Workshop on Computer Aided Modeling and Design of Communication Links and Networks, ISSN 2378-4873
Keywords
LTE/LTE-A, DRX, power saving, energy efficiency, queuing delay, machine-to-machine communication, military training, IoT
National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications Applied Mechanics Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-32117 (URN)10.1109/CAMAD.2016.7790337 (DOI)000391562900017 ()2-s2.0-85018182590 (Scopus ID)978-1-5090-2558-9 (ISBN)
Conference
2016 IEEE 21st International Workshop on Computer Aided Modelling and Design of Communication Links and Networks (CAMAD), Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 23-25 October, 2016
Available from: 2016-10-01 Created: 2016-10-01 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
6. Modeling of LTE DRX in RRC Idle state
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling of LTE DRX in RRC Idle state
2017 (English)In: 2017 IEEE 22nd International Workshop on Computer Aided Modeling and Design of Communication Links and Networks (CAMAD), 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In LTE/LTE-A the Discontinuous Reception (DRX) mechanism is the main approach for power saving in User Equipments (UEs) when in Connected and Idle mode. In this paper, an Idle mode DRX mechanism model is proposed also enabling evaluation of closely related mechanisms such as paging and Tracking Area Update (TAU). Two performance metrics are derived, namely the reachability delay and the power saving factor. © Copyright 2017 IEEE

National Category
Communication Systems Telecommunications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hh:diva-34995 (URN)10.1109/CAMAD.2017.8031632 (DOI)2-s2.0-85032207125 (Scopus ID)978-1-5090-6302-4 (ISBN)
Conference
2017 IEEE 22nd International Workshop on Computer Aided Modeling and Design of Communication Links and Networks (CAMAD), Lund, Sweden, 19-21 June, 2017
Available from: 2017-09-17 Created: 2017-09-17 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved

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