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Explosive radiation and spatial expansion across the cold environments of the Old World in an avian family
Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology. Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Zool, Key Lab Zool Systemat & Evolut, Beijing, Peoples R China.; Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden..
Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Systemat & Biodivers, Gothenburg, Sweden..
Univ Copenhagen, Ctr Macroecol Evolut & Climate, Zool Museum, Copenhagen, Denmark..
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2017 (English)In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, no 16, p. 6346-6357Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Our objective was to elucidate the biogeography and speciation patterns in an entire avian family, which shows a complex pattern of overlapping and nonoverlapping geographical distributions, and much variation in plumage, but less in size and structure. We estimated the phylogeny and divergence times for all of the world's species of Prunella based on multiple genetic loci, and analyzed morphometric divergence and biogeographical history. The common ancestor of Prunella was present in the Sino-Himalayan Mountains or these mountains and Central Asia-Mongolia more than 9 million years ago (mya), but a burst of speciations took place during the mid-Pliocene to early Pleistocene. The relationships among the six primary lineages resulting from that differentiation are unresolved, probably because of the rapid radiation. A general increase in sympatry with increasing time since divergence is evident. With one exception, species in clades younger than c. 3.7 my are allopatric. Species that are widely sympatric, including the most recently diverged (2.4 mya) sympatric sisters, are generally more divergent in size/structure than allo-/parapatric close relatives. The distributional pattern and inferred ages suggest divergence in allopatry and substantial waiting time until secondary contact, likely due to competitive exclusion. All sympatrically breeding species are ecologically segregated, as suggested by differences in size/structure and habitat. Colonizations of new areas were facilitated during glacialperiods, followed by fragmentation during interglacials-contrary to the usual view that glacial periods resulted mainly in fragmentations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY , 2017. Vol. 7, no 16, p. 6346-6357
Keyword [en]
hard polytomy, Prunella, secondary contact, speciation, sympatry
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-335717DOI: 10.1002/ece3.3136ISI: 000409528000026PubMedID: 28861238OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-335717DiVA, id: diva2:1164398
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilDanish National Research Foundation
Available from: 2017-12-11 Created: 2017-12-11 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved

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